BioJava:BioJavaXDocs

BioJavaX is not BioJava 3 is not BioJavaX.

BioJavaX is an extension to the existing BioJava 1 or BioJava Legacy project. Anything written with BioJava will work with BioJavaX, and vice versa.

org.biojavax is to org.biojava as javax is to java.

The BioJava3 project is a completely new project which intends to rewrite everything in BioJava from scratch, based around a new set of object designs and concepts. It is entirely incompatible with the existing BioJava project.

Therefore BioJavaX is not BioJava 3, and has nothing to do with it. Please don’t get them confused!

What didn’t change?

Existing interfaces.

Backwards-compatibility is always an issue when a major new version of a piece of software is released.

BioJavaX addresses this by keeping all the new classes and interfaces tucked away inside their own special package, org.biojavax. None of the existing interfaces were modified in any way, so any code which depends on them will not see any difference.

Apart from ongoing bugfixes, the way in which the existing classes work also has not changed.

The new interfaces introduced in BioJavaX extend those present in the existing BioJava packages. This allows new BioJavaX-derived objects to be passed to legacy code and still be understood.

Change listeners.

BioJava’s change listener model is intact and unchanged. The new BioJavaX classes define a set of extra change types which they fire in addition to the ones generated by existing BioJava classes.

This means that existing change listeners can be attached to BioJavaX-derived objects and still receive all the information they would normally receive.

Event-based file parsing.

BioJavaX still uses event-based file parsing to read and write files, in exactly the same way as the old BioJava classes did.

However, you cannot use existing event listeners with the new BioJavaX file parsers. You must alter the listeners to extend the new org.biojavax.bio.seq.io.RichSeqIOListener interface instead.

What did change?

System requirements.

Java 1.4 is required for all BioJavaX packages.

Rich interfaces.

BioJavaX defines a new set of interfaces for working with sequence objects. These interfaces are closely modelled on the BioSQL 1.0 schema.

The new interfaces extend existing interfaces wherever possible, in order to allow backwards-compatibility with legacy code. These interfaces are known as rich interfaces, as they could be said to be ‘enriched’ versions of the interfaces that they extend.

Instances of implementing classes are known as rich objects, which legacy instances known as plain ones.

Here is a list of the new rich interfaces:

ComparableOntology (extends Ontology) ComparableTerm (extends Term) ComparableTriple (extends Triple) RichSequenceIterator (extends SequenceIterator) RichSequence (extends Sequence) RichLocation (extends Location) RichFeature (extends StrandedFeature) RichFeatureHolder (extends FeatureHolder) RichAnnotatable (extends Annotatable) RichAnnotation (extends Annotation) BioSQLFeatureFilter (extends FeatureFilter) RichSequenceDB (extends SequenceDB)

Wherever possible in BioJavaX, conversions are attempted if a method expecting a rich object receives a plain one. You can perform these conversions yourself by using the Tools sub-class of the appropriate rich interface, for example to convert an old Sequence object into a new RichSequence object, you can do this:

Sequence s = ...; // get an old Sequence object from somewhere RichSequence rs = RichSequence.Tools.enrich(s);

The conversion process does its best, but it is not perfect. Much of the way information is stored in the new BioJavaX object model is fundamentally incompatible with the old object model. So its always best to deal with RichSequence objects from the word go and try to avoid instantiating older Sequence objects as far as possible.

Other new interfaces define new concepts, or replace old interfaces entirely due to a fundamental clash in the way they see the world. Here is a list:

NCBITaxon BioEntry RichObjectBuilder RichSequenceHandler Comment CrossRef CrossReferenceResolver DocRef DocRefAuthor Namespace Note RankedCrossRef RankedCrossRefable RankedDocRef BioEntryRelationship Position PositionResolver RichFeatureRelationship BioEntryDB

BioSQL persistence.

BioJavaX introduces a whole new way of working with BioSQL databases.

Instead of attempting to re-invent the wheel with yet another new object-relational mapping system, BioJavaX uses the services of Hibernate to do all the dirty work for it. In fact, there is not a single SQL statement anywhere in the BioJavaX code.

The use of Hibernate allows users to have as much or as little control as they like over transactions and query optimisation. The Hibernate query language, HQL, is simple to learn and easy to use.

You can find out more about the Hibernate project at their website: www.hibernate.org/

Better file parsers.

The old BioJava file parsers worked in that they loaded all information into memory, but they didn’t do much at attempting to understand the contents of the files, and they often failed miserably when trying to convert between formats.

The new parsers supplied with BioJavaX put a lot of effort into trying to fit data from the myriad of file formats out there into a form representable by BioSQL, and hence by the new BioJavaX object model. Of course this isn’t always possible, but it does a much better job than the old ones.

By parsing data into a fixed object model instead of storing everything as annotations (as was the case, for instance, with the old SwissProt parsers), conversion between file formats becomes much easier.

The new file parsers also allow you to skip uninteresting parts of the file altogether, greatly speeding up simple tasks such as counting the number of sequences in a file.

NCBI Taxonomy loader.

A parser is provided for loading the NCBI Taxonomy database into a set of BioJavaX NCBITaxon objects. This parser reads the node.dmp and names.dmp files supplied by NCBI and constructs the appropriate hierarchy of objects. If you are using BioSQL, it can persist this hierarchy to the database as it goes.

Namespaces.

All sequences in BioJavaX must belong to a namespace.

Singletons.

BioJavaX tries to use singletons as far as possible. This is:

  • to reduce memory usage.
  • to prevent problems with duplicate keys when persisting to BioSQL.

The singletons are kept in a LRU cache managed by a RichObjectFactory. See the chapter on this subject later in this book.

Genetic algorithms.

BioJavaX introduces a new package for working with genetic algorithms.

Future plans.

BioPerl and BioPerl-DB compatibility.

We tried our best to store sequence data into BioSQL in the same way as BioPerl-DB does. We also tried to parse files in such a way that data from files would end up in the same place in BioSQL as if it had been parsed using the BioPerl file parsers then persisted using BioPerl-DB.

However, we may not have been entirely successful, particularly with regard to the naming conventions of annotations and feature qualifiers, and the use of the document and publication cross-reference tables. Likewise, our definition of fuzzy locations may differ.

So, we intend in the future to try and consolidate our efforts with those of the BioPerl and BioPerl-DB projects, along with any of the other Bio* projects who provide BioSQL persistence functionality, so that we can all read and write data to and from BioSQL in the same way.

The goal is to be able to read a file with any of the Bio* projects, persist it to the database, then read it back from the database using any of the other Bio* projects and write it out to file. The input and output files should be logically identical (give or take some minor layout or formatting issues).

Help is needed!

Efficient parsing.

The event-based parser model works great, but our implementations of actual file parsing code may leave a lot to be desired in terms of efficient use of memory or minimising the number of uses of markers in the input stream.

If you are an IO, parsing, or code optimisation guru, you would be most welcome to come have a look and speed things up a bit.

More file formats supported.

We’ve provided parsers (and writers) for all the major formats we thought would be necessary. But there are only two of us, and it takes a while to trawl through the documentation for each format and try to shoehorn it all into the BioSQL model, even before the actual coding begins.

If there’s a format you like and use daily and you think would be of use to others, but you can’t find it in BioJavaX, then please do write a parser for it and contribute it to the project.

Persistence to non-BioSQL databases.

Basically, right now, you can’t. We have only provided Hibernate mappings for BioSQL.

There is no reason though why you can’t write a new set of Hibernate XML mapping files that map the BioJavaX objects into tables in some other database format. Because of the way Hibernate works, you wouldn’t have to change any of the BioJavaX code at all, only the mapping files that tell Hibernate how to translate between objects and tables.

If you do, and you think someone else could benefit from your work, please consider contributing them to the BioJava project for everyone to enjoy. 5. Java 1.5 and Generics.

Much discussion has occurred recently about upgrading BioJava to use features only available since version 1.5 of Java (also known as Java 5). Mostly we are considering the use of generics.

A lot of this started after some Java 1.5 features accidentally slipped into the biojava-live CVS branch one day and suddenly nobody using older JVMs could compile it any more. These were quickly removed, and it was agreed to wait a while before a decision was made about the ultimate use of such features.

Java 1.5 offers a lot of features that would be very useful in BioJava, and has the potential to greatly reduce the size of the project’s codebase. However, 1.5 compilers and runtime environments are not available for some platforms yet, and in other situations companies are reluctant to upgrade when they have already settled on 1.4 as their tested and accepted Java environment.

So, we won’t do it yet, but we would definitely like to change in future.

Singletons and the RichObjectFactory.

Using RichObjectFactory.

BioJavaX revolves around the use of singleton instances. This is important to keep memory usage down, and becomes even more important when working with BioSQL databases via Hibernate to prevent duplicate records in tables. Singletons are generated in a singleton factory.

RichObjectFactory is a caching singleton factory. If you request lots of instances of the same class, the oldest ones are forgotten about and you will get a new instance next time you ask for it. This is to prevent memory blowouts. The default size of this LRU cache is 20 instances of each class.

Singletons are only important when dealing with certain classes:

`

  SimpleNamespace
  SimpleComparableOntology
  SimpleNCBITaxon
  SimpleCrossRef
  SimpleDocRef

`

In all other cases, you don’t need to worry about singletons. In fact, the singleton factory may complain if you try to ask it to make a singleton of any class not listed above.

To generate a new instance of any of the above, you must use the RichObjectFactory. This tool checks an LRU cache to see if you have requested an identical instance recently. If you have, it returns that instance (a singleton). If you haven’t, then it creates the instance, adds it to the LRU cache, then returns it.

The parameters you supply to the RichObjectFactory are a class name, and an array of parameters which you would normally have passed directly to that class’ constructor. Here is a list of the parameters required, and an example, for each of the classes accepted by the current factory:

Table 5.1. RichObjectFactory singleton examples.

| Objects | Parameters | Example | |—————————-|—————————————————————-|————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————| | SimpleNamespace | [name (String)] | Namespace ns = (Namespace)RichObjectFactory.getObject(SimpleNamespace.class,new Object[]{"myNamespace"}); | | SimpleComparableOntology | [name (String)] | ComparableOntology ont = (ComparableOntology)RichObjectFactory.getObject(ComparableOntology.class,new Object[]{"myOntology"}); | | SimpleNCBITaxon | [taxID (Integer)] | Integer taxID = new Integer(12345); NCBITaxon tax = (NCBITaxon)RichObjectFactory.getObject(SimpleNCBITaxon.class,new Object[]{taxID}); | | SimpleCrossRef | [databaseName (String), accession (String), version (Integer)] | Integer version = new Integer(0); CrossRef cr = (CrossRef)RichObjectFactory.getObject( SimpleCrossRef.class, new Object[]{"PUBMED","56789",version} ); | | SimpleDocRef | [authors (List of DocRefAuthor), location (String)] | DocRefAuthor author = new SimpleDocRefAuthor("Bloggs,J."); List authors = new ArrayList();
authors.add(author);
DocRef dr = (DocRef)RichObjectFactory.getObject( ` SimpleDocRef.class, ` ` new Object[]{authors,”Journal of Voodoo Virology, 2005, 23:55-57”});` |

Where the singletons come from.

The actual instances of the classes requested are generated using a RichObjectBuilder. The default RichObjectBuilder, SimpleRichObjectBuilder, uses introspection to call the constructors on the classes and create new instances. You do not need to do anything to set this up.

If you do decide to write your own RichObjectBuilder for whatever reason, you can set it to be used by RichObjectFactory like this:

java RichObjectBuilder builder = ...; // create your own one here RichObjectFactory.setRichObjectBuilder(builder); // make the factory use it from now on

If you change the default RichObjectBuilder to a different one, you must do so at the very beginning of your program before any call to the RichObjectFactory has been made. This is because when the builder is changed, existing singletons or default instances are not removed. If you do not follow this guideline, you will end up with a mix of objects in the cache created by two different builders, which could lead to interesting situations.

Hibernate singletons.

When working with Hibernate, you must connect BioJavaX to Hibernate by calling RichObjectFactory.connectToBioSQL(session) and passing it your session object. When using this, instances are looked up in the underlying BioSQL database first to see if they exist. If they do, they are loaded and returned. If not, they are created, then returned.

The instances returned by RichObjectFactory when connected to Hibernate are guaranteed true singletons and will never be duplicated even if you fill up the LRU cache several times between requests.

You can replicate the behaviour of RichObjectFactory.connectToBioSQL(session) by instantiating BioSQLRichObjectBuilder and BioSQLCrossReferenceResolver objects and passing these to the appropriate methods in RichObjectFactory.

See the section on BioSQL and Hibernate later in this document for more details.

Managing the LRU cache.

By default, the LRU cache keeps the 20 most recently requested instances of any given class in memory. If more than 20 objects are requested, the oldest ones are removed from the cache before the new ones are added. This keeps memory usage at a minimum.

If you are experiencing problems with duplicate instances when you expected singletons., or believe that a larger or smaller cache may help the performance of your application, then you can change the size of the LRU cache. There are two ways of doing this.

Changes to the LRU cache size are not instantaneous. The size of the cache only changes physically next time an instance is requested from it. Even then, only the cache of instances of the class requested will actually change.

Global LRU cache size.

Changing the global LRU cache size will change the cache size for all classes. It applies the new cache size to every single class. Next time any of those classes are accessed via the RichObjectFactory, the LRU cache for that class will adjust to the new size.

java RichObjectFactory.setLRUCacheSize(50); // increases the global LRU cache size to 50 instances per class

Class-specific LRU cache size.

Changing the LRU cache size for a specific class will only affect that class. Your class-specific settings will be lost if you later change the global LRU cache size.

RichObjectFactory.setLRUCacheSize(SimpleNamespace.class, 50); // increases the LRU cache for SimpleNamespace instances to 50

Convenience methods

A number of convenience methods are provided by the RichObjectFactory to allow easy access to some useful default singletons:

RichObjectFactory convenience methods.

Name of method Use
void setDefaultNamespaceName(String name) Sets the name of the default namespace. This namespace is used when loading files which have no namespace information of their own, and when no namespace has been passed to the file loading routines. It can also be used when creating temporary RichSequence or BioEntry objects, as the namespace parameter is compulsory on these objects.
Namespace getDefaultNamespace(); Returns the default namespace singleton instance (delegates to getObject()).
void setDefaultOntologyName(String name); Sets the name of the default ontology. When parsing files, new terms are often created. If the file format does not have an ontology of its own, then it will use the default ontology to store these terms. Terms commonly used throughout BioJavaX, including those common to all file formats, are also stored in the default ontology.
ComparableOntology getDefaultOntology(); Returns the default ontology singleton instance (delegates to getObject()).
void setDefaultPositionResolver(PositionResolver pr); When converting fuzzy locations into actual physical locations, a PositionResolver instance is used. The default one is AveragePositionResolver, which averages out the range of fuzziness to provide a value somewhere in the middle. You can override this setting using this function. All locations that are resolved without explicility specifying a PositionResolver to use will then use this resolver to do the work.
PositionResolver getDefaultPositionResolver(); Returns the default position resolver.
void setDefaultCrossReferenceResolver(CrossReferenceResolver cr); CrossRef instances are links to other databases. When a CrossRef is used in a RichLocation instance, it means that to obtain the symbols (sequence) for that location, it must first retrieve the remote sequence object. The CrossReferenceResolver object specified using this method is used to carry this out. The default implementation of this interface DummyCrossReferenceResolver, which always returns infinitely ambiguous symbol lists and cannot look up any remote sequence objects. Use BioSQLCrossReferenceResolver instead (or use RichObjectFactory.connectToBioSQL(session)) if you are using Hibernate, which is able to actually look up the sequences (if they exist in your database).
CrossReferenceResolver getDefaultCrossReferenceResolver(); Returns the default cross reference resolver.
void setDefaultRichSequenceHandler(RichSequenceHandler rh); Calls to RichSequence methods which reference sequence data will delegate to this handler to carry the requests out. The default implementation is a DummyRichSequenceHandler, which just uses the internal SymbolList of the RichSequence to look up the data. When this is set to a BioSQLRichSequenceHandler, the handler will go to the database to look up the information instead of keeping an in-memory copy of it.
RichSequenceHandler getDefaultRichSequenceHandler(); Returns the default rich sequence handler.
void connectToBioSQL(Object session); Instantiates BioSQLCrossReferenceResolver, BioSQLRichObjectBuilder and BioSQLRichSequenceHandler using the Hibernate session object provided, and sets these objects as the default instances. After this call, the factory will try to look up all object requests in the underlying database first.

Default settings.

The default namespace name is lcl.

The default ontology name is biojavax.

The default LRU cache size is 20.

The default position resolver is AveragePositionResolver.

The default cross reference resolver is DummyCrossReferenceResolver.

The default rich sequence handler is DummyRichSequenceHandler.

Working with sequences.

Creating sequences.

BioJavaX has a two-tier definition of sequence data.

BioEntry objects correspond to the bioentry table in BioSQL. They do not have any sequence information, and neither do they have any features. They can, however, be annotated, commented, and put into relationships with each other. They can also have cross-references to publications and other databases associated with them.

RichSequence objects extend BioEntry objects by adding in sequence data and a feature table.

So, when to use them?

  • BioEntry objects are most useful when performing simple operations such as counting sequences, checking taxonomy data, looking up accessions, or finding out things like which objects refer to a particular PUBMED entry.
  • RichSequence objects are useful only when you need access to the sequence data itself, or to the sequence feature table.
  • RichSequence objects must be used whenever you wish to pass objects to legacy code that is expecting Sequence objects, as only RichSequence objects implement the Sequence interface. BioEntry objects do not.

Throughout the rest of this document, both BioEntry and RichSequence objects will be referred to interchangeably as sequence objects.

To create a BioEntry object, you need to have at least the following information:

  • a Namespace instance to associate the sequence with (use RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace() for an easy way out)
  • a name for the sequence
  • an accession for the sequence
  • a version for the sequence (use 0 if you don’t want to bother with versions)

To create a RichSequence object, you need to have all the above plus:

  • a SymbolList containing the sequence data
  • a version for the sequence data (this is separate from the version of the sequence object)

Multiple accessions

If you wish to assign multiple accessions to a sequence, you must do so using the special term provided, like this:

```java ComparableTerm accTerm = RichSequence.Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm(); Note accession1 = new SimpleNote(accTerm,”A12345”,1); // this note has an arbitrary rank of 1 Note accession2 = new SimpleNote(accTerm,”Z56789”,2); // this note has an arbitrary rank of 2 … RichSequence rs = …; // get a rich sequence from somewhere rs.getNoteSet().add(accession1); // annotate the rich sequence with the first additional accession rs.getNoteSet().add(accession2); // annotate the rich sequence with the second additional accession … // you can annotate bioentry objects in exactly the same way BioEntry be = …; // get a bioentry from somewhere be.getNoteSet().add(accession1); be.getNoteSet().add(accession2);


See later in this document for more information on how to annotate and
comment on sequences.

### Circular sequences

BioJavaX can flag sequences as being circular, using the setCircular()
and getCircular() methods on RichSequence instances. However, as this
information is not part of BioSQL, it will be lost when the sequence is
persisted to a BioSQL database. Use with care.

Note that only circular sequences can have features with circular
locations associated with them.

Relationships between sequences.
--------------------------------

### Relating two sequences

Two sequences can be related to each other by using a
BioEntryRelationship object to construct the link.

Relationships are optionally ranked. If you don't want to rank the
relationship, use null in the constructor.

The following code snippet defines a new term "contains" in the default
ontology, then creates a relationship that states that sequence A (the
parent) contains sequence B (the child):

```java ComparableTerm contains =
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology().getOrCreateTerm("contains"); ...
RichSequence parent = ...; // get sequence A from somewhere RichSequence
child = ...; // get sequence B from somewhere BioEntryRelationship
relationship = new
SimpleBioEntryRelationship(parent,child,contains,null);
parent.addRelationship(relationship); // add the relationship to the
parent ... parent.removeRelationship(relationship); // you can always
take it away again later ```

### Querying the relationship

Sequences are only aware of relationships in which they are the parent
sequence. A child sequence cannot find out which parent sequences it is
related to.

The following code snippet prints out all the relationships a sequence
has with child sequences:

```java RichSequence rs = ...; // get a rich sequence from somewhere for
(Iterator i = rs.getRelationships().iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {

`    BioEntryRelationship br = (BioEntryRelationship)i.next();`  
`    BioEntry parent = br.getObject(); // parent == rs`  
`    BioEntry child = br.getSubject(); `  
`    ComparableTerm relationship = br.getTerm();`  
`    // print out the relationship (eg. "A contains B");`  
`    System.out.println(parent.getName()+" "+relationship.getName()+" "+child.getName());`

} ```

Reading and writing files.
--------------------------

### Tools for reading/writing files

BioJavaX provides a replacement set of tools for working with files.
This is necessary because the new file parsers must work with the new
RichSeqIOListener in order to preserve all the information from the file
correctly.

The tools can all be found in RichSequence.IOTools, a subclass of the
RichSequence interface. For each file format there are a number of
utility methods in this class for reading a variety of sequence types,
and writing them out again. See later sections of this chapter for
details on individual formats.

Here is an example of using the RichSequence.IOTools methods. The
example reads a file in Genbank format containing some DNA sequences,
then prints them out to standard out (the screen) in EMBL format:

```java // an input GenBank file BufferedReader br = new
BufferedReader(new FileReader("myGenbank.gbk")); // a namespace to
override that in the file Namespace ns =
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace(); // we are reading DNA sequences
RichSequenceIterator seqs = RichSequence.IOTools.readGenbankDNA(br,ns);
while (seqs.hasNext()) {

`   RichSequence rs = seqs.nextRichSequence();`  
`   // write it in EMBL format to standard out`  
`   RichSequence.IOTools.writeEMBL(System.out, rs, ns);                   `

} ```

If you wish to output a number of sequences in one of the XML formats,
you have to pass a RichSequenceIterator over your collection of
sequences in order for the XML format to group them together into a
single file with the correct headers:

```java // an input GenBank file BufferedReader br = new
BufferedReader(new FileReader("myGenbank.gbk")); // a namespace to
override that in the file Namespace ns =
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace(); // we are reading DNA sequences
RichSequenceIterator seqs = RichSequence.IOTools.readGenbankDNA(br,ns);
// write the whole lot in EMBLxml format to standard out
RichSequence.IOTools.writeEMBLxml(System.out, seqs, ns); ```

If you don't know what format your input file is in, but know it could
be one of a fixed set of acceptable formats, then you can use BioJavaX's
format-guessing routine to attempt to read it:

```java // Not sure if your input is EMBL or Genbank? Load them both
here. Class.forName("org.biojavax.bio.seq.io.EMBLFormat");
Class.forName("org.biojavax.bio.seq.io.GenbankFormat");

// Now let BioJavaX guess which format you actually should use (using
the default namespace) Namespace ns =
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace(); RichSequenceIterator seqs =
RichSequence.IOTools.readFile(new File("myfile.seq"),ns); ```

For those who like to do things the hard way, reading and writing by
directly using the RichStreamReader and RichStreamWriter interfaces is
described below.

#### Reading using RichStreamReader

File reading is based around the concept of a RichStreamReader. This
object returns a RichSequenceIterator which iterates over every sequence
in the file on demand.

To construct a RichStreamReader, you will need five things.

1.  a BufferedReader instance which is connected to the file you wish to
    parse;
2.  a RichSequenceFormat instance which understands the format of the
    file (eg. FastaFormat, GenbankFormat, etc.);
3.  a SymbolTokenization which understands how to translate the sequence
    data in the file into a BioJava SymbolList;
4.  a RichSequenceBuilderFactory instance which generates instances of
    RichSequenceBuilder;
5.  a Namespace instance to associate the sequences with.

The RichSequenceBuilderFactory is best set to one of the predefined
constants in the RichSequenceBuilderFactory interface. These constants
are defined as:

Table 8.1. RichSequenceBuilderFactory predefined constants.

| Name of constant                    | What it will do                                                                                                                              |
|-------------------------------------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| RichSequenceBuilderFactor.FACTORY   | Does not attempt any compression on sequence data.                                                                                           |
| RichSequenceBuilderFactor.PACKED    | Will compress all sequence data using PackedSymbolLists.                                                                                     |
| RichSequenceBuilderFactor.THRESHOLD | Will compress sequence data using a PackedSymbolList only when the sequence exceeds 5000 bases in length. Otherwise, data is not compressed. |

If you set the namespace to null, then the namespace used will depend on
the format you are reading. For formats which specify namespaces, the
namespace from the file will be used. For formats which do not specify
namespaces, the default namespace provided by
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace() will be used.

The SymbolTokenization should be obtained from the Alphabet that
represents the sequence data you are expecting from the file. If you are
reading DNA sequences, you should use
DNATools.getDNA().getTokenization("token"). Other alphabets with tools
classes will have similar methods.

For an alphabet which does not have a tools class, you can do this:

```java Alphabet a = ...; // get an alphabet instance from somewhere
SymbolTokenization st = a.getTokenization("token"); ```

#### Writing using RichStreamWriter

File output is done using RichStreamWriter. This requires:

1.  An OutputStream to write sequences to.
2.  A Namespace to use for the sequences.
3.  A RichSequenceIterator that provides the sequences to write.

The namespace should only be specified when the file format includes
namespace information and you wish to override the information
associated with the actual sequences. If you do not wish to do this,
just set it to null, and the namespace from each individual sequence
will be used instead.

The RichSequenceIterator is an iterator over a set of sequences, exactly
the same as the one returned by the RichStreamReader. It is therefore
possible to plug a RichStreamReader directly into a RichStreamWriter and
convert data from one file format to another with no intermediate steps.

If you only have one sequence to write, you can wrap it in a temporary
RichSequenceIterator by using a call like this:

```java RichSequence rs = ...; // get sequence from somewhere
RichSequenceIterator it = new SingleRichSeqIterator(rs); // wrap it in
an iterator ```

#### Example

The following is an example that will read some DNA sequences from a
GenBank file and write them out to standard output (screen) as FASTA
using the methods outlined above:

```java // sequences will be DNA sequences SymbolTokenization dna =
DNATools.getDNA().getTokenization("token"); // read Genbank
RichSequenceFormat genbank = new GenbankFormat(); // write FASTA
RichSequenceFormat fasta = new FastaFormat(); // compress only longer
sequences RichSequenceBuilderFactory factory =
RichSequenceBuilderFactory.THRESHOLD; // read/write everything using the
'bloggs' namespace Namespace bloggsNS = RichObjectFactory.getObject(

`                       SimpleNamespace.class, `  
`                       new Object[]{"bloggs"} `  
`                    );                                                     `

// read seqs from "mygenbank.file" BufferedReader input = new
BufferedReader(new FileReader("mygenbank.file")); // write seqs to
STDOUT OutputStream output = System.out;

RichStreamReader seqsIn = new
RichStreamReader(input,genbank,dna,factory,bloggsNS); RichStreamWriter
seqsOut = new RichStreamWriter(output,fasta); // one-step Genbank to
Fasta conversion! seqsOut.writeStream(seqsIn,bloggsNS); ```

#### Line widths and eliding information

When working at this level, extra methods can be used when direct access
to the RichSequenceFormat object is available. These methods are:

Table 8.2. RichSequenceFormat extra options.

| Name of method           | What it will do                                                                                                                 |
|--------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| get/setLineWidth()       | Sets the line width for output. Any lines longer than this will be wrapped. The default for most formats is 80.                 |
| get/setElideSymbols()    | When set to true, this will skip the sequence data (ie. the addSymbols() method of the RichSeqIOListener will never be called). |
| get/setElideFeatures()   | When set to true, this will skip the feature tables in the file.                                                                |
| get/setElideComments()   | When set to true, this will skip all comments in the file.                                                                      |
| get/setElideReferences() | When set to true, this will skip all publication cross-references in the file.                                                  |

Finer control is available when you go even deeper and write your own
RichSeqIOListener objects. See later in this document for information on
that subject.

#### How parsed data becomes a sequence.

All fields read from a file, regardless of the format, are passed to an
instance of RichSequenceBuilder. In the case of the tools provided in
RichSequence.IOTools, or any RichStreamReader using one of the
RichSequenceBuilderFactory constants or
SimpleRichSequenceBuilderFactory, this is an instance of
SimpleRichSequenceBuilder.

SimpleRichSequenceBuilder constructs sequences as follows:

Table 8.3. SimpleRichSequenceBuilder sequence construction.

| Name of method      | What it will do                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |
|---------------------|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| startSequence       | Resets all the values in the builder to their defaults, ready to parse a whole new sequence.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
| addSequenceProperty | Assumes that both the key and the value of the property are strings. It uses the key to look up a term with the same name (case-sensitive) in the ontology provided by RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology(). If it finds no such term, it creates one. It then adds an annotation to the sequence with that term as the key, using the value provided. The first annotation receives the rank of 0, the second 1, and so on. The annotations are attached to the sequence using setNoteSet() and the accumulated set of notes.                                                                                                          |
| setVersion          | Only accepts a single call per sequence. Value is passed directly to the resulting sequence's |setVersion method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| setURI              | Not implemented, throws an exception.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     |
| setSeqVersion       | Only accepts a single call per sequence. Value is parsed into a double and passed to the resulting sequence's setSeqVersion method. If the value is null, then 0.0 is used.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               |
| setAccession        | Value is passed directly to the sequence's setAccession method. Multiple calls will replace the accession, not add extra ones. The accession cannot be null.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
| setDescription      | Only accepts a single call per sequence. Value is passed directly to the resulting sequence's setDescription method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| setDivision         | Only accepts a single call per sequence. Value is passed directly to the resulting sequence's setDivision method. The division cannot be null.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| setIdentifier       | Only accepts a single call per sequence. Value is passed directly to the resulting sequence's setIdentifier method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       |
| setName             | Only accepts a single call per sequence. Value is passed directly to the resulting sequence's setName method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             |
| setNamespace        | Only accepts a single call per sequence. Value is passed directly to the resulting sequence's setNamespace method. The namespace cannot be null.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
| setComment          | Adds the text supplied (which must not be null) as a comment to the sequence using addComment(). Multiple calls will result in multiple comments being added. The first comment is ranked 1, the second comment ranked 2, and so on.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| setTaxon            | Value is passed to the sequence's setNamespace method. It must not be null. If this method is called repeatedly, only the first call will be accepted. Subsequent calls will result in warnings being printed to standard error. These extra calls will not cause the builder to fail. The value from the initial call will be the one that is used.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| startFeature        | Tells the builder to start a new feature on this sequence. If the current feature has not yet been ended, then this feature will be a sub-feature of the current feature and associated with it via a RichFeatureRelationship, where the current feature is the parent and this new feature is the child. The relationship will be defined with the term "contains" from RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology(). Each feature will be attached to the resulting sequence by calling setParent() on the feature once the sequence has been created.                                                                                        |
| getCurrentFeature   | Returns the current feature, if one has been started. If there is no current feature (eg. it has already ended, or one was never started) then an exception is thrown.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| addFeatureProperty  | Assumes that both the key and the value of the property are strings. It uses the key to look up a term with the same name (case-sensitive) in the ontology provided by RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology(). If it finds no such term, it creates one. It then adds an annotation to the current feature with that term as the key, using the value provided. The first annotation receives the rank of 0, the second 1, and so on. The annotations are attached to the feature using getAnnotation().addNote().                                                                                                                        |
| endFeature          | Ends the current feature. If there is no current feature, an exception is thrown.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| setRankedDocRef     | Adds the given RankedDocRef to the set of publication cross-references which the sequence being built refers to. The value cannot be null. If the same value is provided multiple times, it will only be saved once. Each value is stored by calling addRankedDocRef() on the resulting sequence.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| setRankedCrossRef   | Adds the given RankedCrossRef to the set of database cross-references which the sequence being built refers to. The value cannot be null. If the same value is provided multiple times, it will only be saved once. Each value is stored by calling addRankedCrossRef() on the resulting sequence. setRelationship Adds the given BioEntryRelationship to the set of relationships in which the sequence being built is the parent. The relationship cannot be null. If the same relationship is provided multiple times, it will only be saved once. Each relationship is stored by calling addRelationship() on the resulting sequence. |
| setCircular         | You can call this as many times as you like. Each call will override the value provided by the previous call. The value is passed to the sequence's setCircular method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   |
| addSymbols          | Adds symbols to this sequence. You can call it multiple times to set symbols at different locations in the sequence. If any of the symbols found are not in the alphabet accepted by this builder, or if the locations provided to place the symbols at are unacceptable, an exception is thrown. The resulting SymbolList will be the basis upon which the final RichSequence object is built.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |
| endSequence         | Tells the builder that we have provided all the information we know. If at this point the name, namespace, or accession have not been provided, or if any of them are null, an exception is thrown.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       |
| makeSequence        | Constructs a RichSequence object from the information provided, following the rules laid out in this table, and returns it. The RichSequence object does not actually exist until this method has been called.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| makeRichSequence    | Wrapper for makeSequence.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 |

If you want fine-grained control over every aspect of a file whilst it
is being parsed, you must write your own implementation of the
RichSeqIOListener interface (which RichSequenceBuilder extends). This is
detailed later in this document.

### FASTA

FastaFormat reads and writes FASTA files, and is able to parse the
description line in detail.

#### Reading

The description line formats understood are as follows:

`
>gi|<identifier>|<namespace>|<accession>.<version>|<name> <description>
>gi|<identifier>|<namespace>|<accession>|<name> <description>
`  
`
><namespace>|<accession>.<version>|<name> <description><br>
><namespace>|<accession>|<name> <description>
`  
`
><name> <description>
`

The description is optional in all cases. The version defaults to 0 if
not provided.

If a non-null Namespace is provided, then the namespace in the file is
ignored.

If a null Namespace is provided, then the namespace from the file is
used. If no namespace is specified in the file, then
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace() is used.

The fields are passed into the RichSeqIOListener as follows:

Table 8.4. FastaFormat input field destinations.

| FASTA Info type | Method used to set info |
|-----------------|-------------------------|
| identifier      | setIdentifier()         |
| namespace       | setNamespace()          |
| accession       | setAccession()          |
| version         | setVersion()            |
| name            | setName()               |
| description     | setDescription()        |
| <sequence data> | addSymbols()            |

#### Writing

Description lines are always output in one of two forms:

`
>gi|<identifier>|<namespace>|<accession>.<version>|<name> <description><br>
><namespace>|<accession>.<version>|<name> <description>
`

In the case that the accession number and the name are identicle then
the `<name>` is omitted.

The first form is used if the identifier of the sequence object is not
null, otherwise the second form is used. In both cases, the description
is only output if it is not null.

The fields are read from the RichSequence object as follows:

Table 8.5. FastaFormat output field sources.

| FASTA Info type | Method used to get info                          |
|-----------------|--------------------------------------------------|
| identifier      | getIdentifier()                                  |
| namespace       | getNamespace()                                   |
| accession       | getAccession()                                   |
| version         | getVersion()                                     |
| name            | getName()                                        |
| description     | getDescription()                                 |
| <sequence data> | Sequence is read directly as it is a SymbolList. |

### GenBank

GenbankFormat reads and writes GenBank files, and understands almost all
permutations of the location descriptors found in the feature tables.

#### Reading

The fields are passed into the RichSeqIOListener as follows:

Table 8.6. GenBankFormat input field destinations.

| GenBank Field | How is it processed?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
|---------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| LOCUS         | setName(), addSequenceProperty(Terms.getStrandedTerm()), setCircular(), addSequenceProperty(Terms.getMolTypeTerm()), addSequenceProperty(Terms.getDateUpdatedTerm()), and setDivision().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| DEFINITION    | setDescription()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| ACCESSION     | The first one is passed to setAccession(). Subsequent entries are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| VERSION       | The section before the full stop "." is passed to setAccession(). If it differs from the first accession on the ACCESSION line, then the first accession on the ACCESSION line becomes an additional accession, whilst the accession from the VERSION line becomes the primary accession. The section after the full stop is passed to setVersion(). The GI number is passed to setIdentifier().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| KEYWORDS      | The line is split up into individual keywords, each of which is passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getKeywordTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
| SOURCE        | Ignored.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| ORGANISM      | Ignored.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| REFERENCE     | The coordinates of the reference end up as start and end coordinates of a SimpleRankedDocRef object which is attached to the sequence by calling setRankedDocRef().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 |
| AUTHORS       | The value is parsed into a set of DocRefAuthor objects using DocRefAuthor.Tools. The resulting set becomes part of the DocRef object which is wrapped using a SimpleRankedDocRef and attached to the sequence.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| TITLE         | The title is passed to the current DocRef object using setTitle().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  |
| JOURNAL       | The journal is passed to the current DocRef object using setLocation().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             |
| PUBMED        | A RankedCrossRef object is created pointing to Terms.PUBMED\_KEY as the database, and using this value as the accession with a version of 0. It is attached to the sequence using setRankedCrossRef(). If no MEDLINE line is found, this is also associated with the current reference by using setCrossRef() on the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 |
| MEDLINE       | Behaves similarly to PUBMED, but with a database name of Terms.MEDLINE\_KEY. It takes precedence over PUBMED and will always be used for the DocRef cross-reference.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| REMARK        | Added to the current reference by calling setRemark() on the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| COMMENT       | setComment()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        |
| FEATURES      | Each feature is started by calling startFeature(). The source is Terms.getGenBankTerm() whereas the type is obtained from RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology().getOrCreateTerm() using the feature name. Qualifiers are added by using addFeatureProperty() with the term key created by RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology().getOrCreateTerm() using the qualifier name. There are two special cases of qualifier: db\_xref, and organism. Neither end up being stored as qualifiers. A database cross-reference is created for db\_xref qualifiers and added to the feature using addRankedCrossRef(), except when the feature type is source and the database name (before the colon) is taxon, in which case the taxon ID is used in conjunction with the organism qualifier to determine the NCBITaxon for this sequence, and passed to the sequence using setTaxon(). Location strings are run through GenBankLocationParser to generate RichLocation instances to attach to the feature. |
| BASE          | Ignored.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| ORIGIN        | The sequence is read and passed to addSymbols().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |

#### Writing

The fields are read from the RichSequence object as follows:

Table 8.7. GenBankFormat output field sources.

| GenBank Field    | How is it outputted?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
|------------------|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| LOCUS            | getName(), length(), getNoteSet(Terms.getStrandedTerm()), getNoteSet(Terms.getMolTypeTerm()), getCircular(), getDivision(), and getNoteSet(Terms.getDateUpdatedTerm())                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| DEFINITION       | getDescription()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
| ACCESSION        | getAccession(), and getNoteSet(Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       |
| VERSION          | getAccession(), getIdentifier() and getVersion()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
| KEYWORDS         | getNoteSet(Terms.getKeywordTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       |
| SOURCE           | getTaxon().getDisplayName()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               |
| ORGANISM         | getTaxon()getDisplayName(), chopped before the first bracket, and getTaxon().getNameHierarchy()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |
| REFERENCE        | Each reference is obtained from getRankedDocRefs(). The coordinates of the reference are from the reference's getStart() and getEnd() methods.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| AUTHORS          | The author string is from the reference's getAuthors() method.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| TITLE            | The title is from the reference's getTitle().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             |
| JOURNAL          | The journal information is from the reference's getLocation().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| PUBMED / MEDLINE | The cross reference returned by getCrossRef() on the reference provides the database name and accession used here.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        |
| REMARK           | getRemark() on the current reference object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
| COMMENT          | All the comments returned by getComments() are joined together, separated by newlines.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| FEATURES         | Each feature is output in turn by iterating through getFeatureSet(). For the source feature, the db\_xref and organism fields are added to the output by calling getTaxon().getNCBITaxID() and getTaxon().getDisplayName() on the sequence (the latter is chopped before the first bracket if necessary). For all features, extra db\_xref qualifiers are output for each cross-reference returned by calling getRankedCrossRefs() on the feature. The other qualifiers for the features are the contents of the feature's annotation, provided by getNoteSet() on the feature. GenBankLocationParser is used to convert the feature's getLocation() output into the correct text format. |
| BASE             | Calculated from the sequence data.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        |
| ORIGIN           | The sequence is read directly as it is a SymbolList..                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     |

### EMBL

EMBLFormat reads and writes EMBL files, and understands almost all
permutations of the location descriptors found in the feature tables.

In version 87 of EMBL, the format for the ID line changed. The parser
will understand files with both 87 and pre-87 ID lines, but by default
will write out files using the new 87 ID line format. If you wish to
write files using the pre-87 ID line format, you must call the
writeSequence() method directly and specify the EMBL\_PRE87\_FORMAT
format.

#### Reading

The fields are passed into the RichSeqIOListener as follows:

Table 8.8. EMBLFormat input field destinations.

| EMBL Field | How is it processed?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
|------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ID         | setName(), addSequenceProperty(Terms.getMolTypeTerm()), setDivision(), setCircular(), addSequenceProperty(Terms.getGenomicTerm()), addSequenceProperty(Terms.getDataClassTerm()) (87 only)                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| AC         | First accession goes to setAccession(), all others to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| SV         | If the accession (before the full stop ".") is different from the first accession on the AC line, then this accession becomes the primary accession, and the first accession on the AC line becomes an additional accession. Everything after the full stop goes to setVersion(). If the version line is unparseable, it is stored using addSequenceProperty(Terms.getVersionLine()) instead. |
| DE         | setDescription()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
| DT         | For creation date: addSequenceProperty(Terms.getDateCreatedTerm()) and addSequenceProperty(Terms.getRelCreatedTerm()). For last updated date: addSequenceProperty(Terms.getDateUpdatedTerm()) and addSequenceProperty(Terms.getRelUpdatedTerm()).                                                                                                                                             |
| DR         | Each record is split into a database name, primary accession, and additional accessions. A CrossRef object is constructed from these first two pieces, and annotated with additional accessions using Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm(). The whole thing is then given a rank and sent to setRankedCrossRef().                                                                               |
| OS         | Ignored.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| OC         | Ignored.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| OG         | addSequenceProperty(Terms.getOrganelleTerm())                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 |
| RN         | The number of the reference becomes the rank of the RankedDocRef object later.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| RP         | The values on this line become the start and end of the RankedDocRef object later.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| RX         | Each of these is parsed and the database name and primary accession are used to construct a CrossRef object. All CrossRef objects are ranked and added to the sequence setRankedCrossRef(), and one of them will be added to the current reference using setCrossRef(). The one that is chosen will be MEDLINE, or PUBMED if not present, or DOI if PUBMED not present either.                |
| RA         | Parsed using DocRefAuthor.Tools.parse() and becomes the set of authors for the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 |
| RG         | Parsed using DocRefAuthor.Tools.parse(), and each consortium is flagged using the setConsortium() method before being added to the set of authors for the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| RT         | The title for setTitle() on the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| RL         | The location for the setLocation() method on the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               |
| RC         | Used for setRemark() on the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| KW         | Each keyword is sent individually to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getKeywordTerm())                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
| CC         | setComment()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  |
| FH         | Ignored.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| FT         | As per the GenBankFormat - please see the section on GenBank parsing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| CO         | Causes an exception as contigs are not supported.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             |
| AH         | Causes an exception as TPAs are not supported.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| SQ         | Sequence data is passed to addSymbols().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |

#### Writing

The fields are read from the RichSequence object as follows:

Table 8.9. EMBLFormat output field sources.

| EMBL Field | How is it outputted?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
|------------|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ID         | getName(), getNoteSet(Terms.getMolTypeTerm()), getDivision(), getCircular(), getNoteSet(Terms.getGenomicTerm()), getNoteSet(Terms.getDataClassTerm()) (87 only)                                                                                                                                 |
| AC         | getAccession(), and getNoteSet(Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                             |
| SV         | getAccession() and getVersion(), or addSequenceProperty(Terms.getVersionLine()) if present.                                                                                                                                                                                                     |
| DE         | getDescription()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| DT         | For creation date: getNoteSet(Terms.getDateCreatedTerm()) and getNoteSet(Terms.getRelCreatedTerm()). For last updated date: getNoteSet(Terms.getDateUpdatedTerm()) and getNoteSetTerms.getRelUpdatedTerm()). If date created is null, then the update date is duplicated and used here as well. |
| DR         | getRankedCrossRef(), using getNoteSet(Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm()) to generate additional accessions.                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| OS         | getTaxon().getDisplayName()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     |
| OC         | getTaxon()getDisplayName(), chopped before the first bracket, and getTaxon().getNameHierarchy().                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| OG         | getNoteSet(Terms.getOrganelleTerm())                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| RN         | Each reference returned by getRankedDocRefs() is iterated over. The rank of the RankedDocRef object is output here.                                                                                                                                                                             |
| RP         | The start and end coordinates of the RankedDocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       |
| RX         | The getCrossRef() output from the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| RA         | The getAuthors() output from the DocRef object, with the consortiums removed.                                                                                                                                                                                                                   |
| RG         | The getAuthors() output from the DocRef object, with all except consortiums removed.                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| RT         | The getTitle() from the DocRef.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 |
| RL         | The getLocation() from the DocRef.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
| RC         | The getRemark() from the DocRef.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| KW         | getNoteSet(Terms.getKeywordTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             |
| CC         | One comment section per entry in getComments().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 |
| FH         | No fields necessary here.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       |
| FT         | As per the GenBankFormat - please see the section on GenBank parsing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |
| CO         | Never generated.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| AH         | Never generated.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| SQ         | Sequence counts are generated, then sequence is read directly as it is a SymbolList.                                                                                                                                                                                                            |

### UniProt

UniProtFormat reads and writes UniProt files.

#### Reading

The fields are passed into the RichSeqIOListener as follows:

Table 8.10. UniProtFormat input field destinations.

| EMBL Field | How is it processed?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
|------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ID         | setName(), addSequenceProperty(Terms.getMolTypeTerm()), addSequenceProperty(Terms.getDataClassTerm()), setDivision()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| AC         | First accession goes to setAccession(), all others to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
| DE         | setDescription()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        |
| DT         | For creation date: addSequenceProperty(Terms.getDateCreatedTerm()) and addSequenceProperty(Terms.getRelCreatedTerm()). For last sequence updated date: addSequenceProperty(Terms.getDateUpdatedTerm()) and addSequenceProperty(Terms.getRelUpdatedTerm()). For last annotation updated date: addSequenceProperty(Terms.getDateAnnotatedTerm()) and addSequenceProperty(Terms.getRelAnnotatedTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| DR         | Each record is split into a database name, primary accession, and additional accessions. A CrossRef object is constructed from these first two pieces, and annotated with additional accessions using Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm(). The whole thing is then given a rank and sent to setRankedCrossRef().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| OS         | First named species is used as the scientific name to construct an NCBITaxon object, along with the tax ID from the OX line, and passed to setTaxon(). The second name, if present, is the common name. Subsequent names are synonyms.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  |
| OC         | Ignored.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| OX         | See details for the OS line.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| OG         | addSequenceProperty(Terms.getOrganelleTerm())                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |
| GN         | Gene names are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getGeneNameTerm()). Gene synonyms are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getGeneSynonymTerm()). Ordered locus names are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getOrderedLocusNameTerm()). ORF names are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getORFNameTerm()). The values have a number and a colon prefixed, where the number refers to the sequence order of the current gene.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| RN         | The number of the reference becomes the rank of the RankedDocRef object later.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
| RP         | The whole value is passed to setRemark(). If it contains the words 'SEQUENCE OF', then the sequence position is parsed out and becomes the start and end of the RankedDocRef object later.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
| RX         | Each of these is parsed and the database name and primary accession are used to construct a CrossRef object. All CrossRef objects are ranked and added to the sequence setRankedCrossRef(), and one of them will be added to the current reference using setCrossRef(). The one that is chosen will be MEDLINE, or PUBMED if not present, or DOI if PUBMED not present either.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
| RA         | Parsed using DocRefAuthor.Tools.parse() and becomes the set of authors for the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |
| RG         | Parsed using DocRefAuthor.Tools.parse(), and each consortium is flagged using the setConsortium() method before being added to the set of authors for the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |
| RT         | The title for setTitle() on the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
| RL         | The location for the setLocation() method on the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| RC         | Comments are key-value pairs. Species comments are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getSpeciesTerm()). Strain comments are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getStrainTerm()). Tissue comments are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getTissueTerm()). Transposon comments are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getTransposonTerm()). Plasmid comments are passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getPlasmidTerm()). The values have a number and a colon prefixed, where the number refers to the rank of the current RankedDocRef.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             |
| KW         | Each keyword is sent individually to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getKeywordTerm())                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        |
| CC         | If the comment is parseable using UniProtCommentParser then the value is passed to setComment(). Otherwise, it is assumed to be the copyright message that comes with UniProt records, and is passed to addSequenceProperty(Terms.getCopyrightTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  |
| FT         | Each feature encountered triggers a call to startFeature(), and calls endFeature() on completion. The location is parsed out using UniProtLocationParser. The source term is Terms.getUniProtTerm(), whereas the type term is a term from RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology().getOrCreateTerm() equivalent to the name of the feature. The feature description is stored using addFeatureProperty(Terms.getFeatureDescTerm()). Subsequent lines beginning with '/' are added as qualifiers. The only qualifier with a predefined term is 'FTId', which is represented by Terms.getFTIdTerm(). All others encountered have terms generated from RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology().getOrCreateTerm() with names equivalent to the name of the qualifier. Qualifiers are added using addFeatureProperty(). UniProt uses its own unique set of feature names. No attempt is made to translate other feature names to/from this set. |
| SQ         | Sequence data is passed to addSymbols().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                |

#### Writing

The fields are read from the RichSequence object as follows:

Table 8.11. UniProtFormat output field sources.

| EMBL Field | How is it outputted?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
|------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ID         | getName(), getNoteSet(Terms.getMolTypeTerm()), getNoteSet(Terms.getDataClassTerm()), getDivision()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| AC         | getAccession(), and getNoteSet(Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     |
| DE         | getDescription()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        |
| DT         | For creation date: getNoteSet(Terms.getDateCreatedTerm()) and getNoteSet(Terms.getRelCreatedTerm()). For last updated date: getNoteSet(Terms.getDateUpdatedTerm()) and getNoteSetTerms.getRelUpdatedTerm()). For last annotation date: getNoteSet(Terms.getDateAnnotatedTerm()) and getNoteSetTerms.getRelAnnotatedTerm()). If date created or date annotated is null, then the update date is duplicated and used here as well.                                                                                                                                                        |
| DR         | getRankedCrossRef(), using getNoteSet(Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm()) to generate additional accessions.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            |
| OS         | getTaxon().getDisplayName() followed by all synonyms from getNames(NCBITaxon.SYNONYM) in brackets.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| OC         | getTaxon().getNameHierarchy().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
| OG         | getNoteSet(Terms.getOrganelleTerm())                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| OX         | getTaxon().getNCBITaxID()                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               |
| GN         | Gene names are written from getNoteSet(Terms.getGeneNameTerm()). Gene synonyms are written from getNoteSet(Terms.getGeneSynonymTerm()). Ordered locus names are written from getNoteSet(Terms.getOrderedLocusNameTerm()). ORF names are written from getNoteSet(Terms.getORFNameTerm()). As the values have a number and a colon prefixed, where the number refers to the sequence order of the current gene, these values are used to keep the correct names grouped together. This prefix is not included in the output.                                                              |
| RN         | Each reference returned by getRankedDocRefs() is iterated over. The rank of the RankedDocRef object is output here.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     |
| RP         | The getRemark() from the DocRef.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        |
| RX         | The getCrossRef() output from the DocRef object.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        |
| RA         | The getAuthors() output from the DocRef object, with the consortiums removed.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |
| RG         | The getAuthors() output from the DocRef object, with all except consortiums removed.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |
| RT         | The getTitle() from the DocRef.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| RL         | The getLocation() from the DocRef.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
| RC         | Comments are key-value pairs. Species comments are from getNoteSet(Terms.getSpeciesTerm()). Strain comments are from getNoteSet(Terms.getStrainTerm()). Tissue comments are from getNoteSet(Terms.getTissueTerm()). Transposon comments are from getNoteSet(Terms.getTransposonTerm()). Plasmid comments are from getNoteSet(Terms.getPlasmidTerm()). As the values have a number and a colon prefixed, where the number refers to the rank of the current RankedDocRef, this is used to match the appropriate comments with each reference. This prefix is not included in the output. |
| KW         | getNoteSet(Terms.getKeywordTerm()).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     |
| CC         | One comment section per entry in getComments().                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| FT         | Each feature is written out using UniProtLocationParser to construct the location string from the feature's getLocation() output, with the feature name being the getType() of the feature and the description being getNoteSet(Terms.getFeatureDescTerm()) on the feature. The FTId, if present in the feature from getNoteSet(Terms.getFTIdTerm()), is written out underneath. No other qualifiers are written out. UniProt uses its own unique set of feature names. No attempt is made to translate other feature names to/from this set.                                           |
| SQ         | Sequence counts are generated, then sequence is read directly as it is a SymbolList.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    |

### INSDSeq (XML)

For parsing files that conform to
<http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/Documentation/DTD/INSDSeq_v1.3.dtd.txt>.

INSDSeqFormat is similar to the GenBank flat-file format in the way it
organises information. Data will end up in the same places and using the
same annotation terms. There are no additional annotation terms involved
which are not also present in the GenBank flat-file format.

### EMBLxml (XML)

For parsing files that conform to
<http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/Documentation/DTD/EMBL_dtd.txt>.

EMBLxmlFormat is very similar to the EMBL flat-file format. Data will be
parsed in much the same way and end up in the same locations. There are
no additional annotation terms involved which are not also present in
the EMBL flat-file format.

The only major difference between EMBL flat-file and EMBL XML is the
location tags. In XML, they are highly structured. The parser gets round
this complexity by constructing Genbank-style location strings out of
the XML hierarchies. These strings are then passed to
GenbankLocationParser for parsing into RichLocation objects. On output,
the location tags are constructed directly from the RichLocation
objects.

### UniProtXML (XML)

For parsing files that conform to
<http://www.ebi.uniprot.org/support/docs/uniprot.xsd>.

UniProtXMLFormat is very complex. The parser attempts to treat it in the
same way as normal UniProt data, and information will end up in the same
locations.

Throughout the format, evidence attributes (not tags) are ignored. There
is simply no way to fit them into the BioJavaX object model.

Like the UniProt flat-file format, locations are passed through the
UniProtLocationParser. Fuzziness may not be correctly interpreted as
frequently not enough information is supplied to be able to construct
the mininum requirements of a Position object. You may see exceptions
being thrown on files which attempt to specify fuzziness without
relation to a specific base or range of bases.

Comments are parsed and converted into flat-file UniProt comments using
the UniProtCommentParser, and converted back again when outputting in
this format. This allows for greater interoperability between the two
formats, and also allows the UniProt XML comment data to be stored in
the plain-text format expected by databases such as BioSQL. Some
comments have been renamed in UniProt XML as opposed to the flat-file
format. These comments will be parsed and converted to use the flat-file
naming convention inside BioJavaX, but when they are output again, they
will go back to their correct UniProt XML names. This is to increase
interoperability between the two UniProt formats.

UniProt XML uses its own unique set of feature names, different even
from the flat-file UniProt format. No attempt is made to translate other
feature names to/from this set.

The UniProt XML format has no concept of a sequence description.
However, it does have a protein tag which describes the structure of the
sequence. This is parsed into a single protein description string and
used as the value for setDescription(). Each part of the protein
description is enclosed in square brackets and prefixed by the word
'Contains' for domains, and 'Includes' for components. Attempting to
write a sequence that has a description which does not conform to this
standard may produce interesting results.

Keywords in UniProt XML have identifier numbers associated with them. A
special ontology, Terms.getUniprotKWOnto(), is used to store these
keywords and their identifiers as they are encountered over time. If a
keyword is encountered with an unknown identifier during output, then
the word 'UNKNOWN' is output in place of the identifier.

The secondary/tertiary/additional accessions for database
cross-references in UniProt XML have hard-coded names which depend on
the position of the accession and the name of the database. If the
database name does not match one of the known ones, or an unexpected
accession is found, then the name used will be
Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm().

A number of additional annotation terms are used by UniProt XML. These
are:

Table 8.12. Additional UniProtXMLFormat annotation terms.

| Terms                           | Usage                                                                       |
|---------------------------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Terms.getProteinTypeTerm()      | Used to store the type attribute from the protein tag.                      |
| Terms.getEvidenceCategoryTerm() | Used to store the category attribute of the evidence tag.                   |
| Terms.getEvidenceTypeTerm()     | Used to store the type attribute of the evidence tag.                       |
| Terms.getEvidenceDateTerm()     | Used to store the date attribute of the evidence tag.                       |
| Terms.getEvidenceAttrTerm()     | Used to store the attribute attribute of the evidence tag.                  |
| Terms.getFeatureRefTerm()       | Used to store the ref attribute of the feature tag.                         |
| Terms.getFeatureOriginalTerm()  | Used to store the value of the original sub-tag of the feature tag.         |
| Terms.getFeatureVariationTerm() | Used to store the value of the variation sub-tag of the feature tag.        |
| Terms.getFeatureStatusTerm()    | Used to store the status attribute of the feature tag.                      |
| Terms.getLocationSequenceTerm() | Used to store the seq attribute of the location sub-tag of the feature tag. |

### New formats

If you want to add a new format, the best thing to do is to extend
RichSequenceFormat.BasicFormat and go from there. In order to make your
class work with the automatic format-guesser
(RichSequence.IOTools.readFile()) you'll need to implement canRead() and
guessSymbolTokenization(), and add a static initializer block to your
class, similar to this:

```java public class MyFormat extends RichSequenceFormat.BasicFormat {

`   static {`  
`       RichSequence.IOTools.registerFormat(MyFormat.class);`  
`   }`

`   // implement the rest of the class here ...`

} ```

### NCBI Taxonomy data

The NCBI taxonomy loader operates outside the standed file parsing
framework, as it is not dealing with a single file and does not generate
sequence objects. Instead, it provides separate functions for reading
the nodes.dmp and names.dmp files line-by-line, and returning the
corresponding NCBITaxon object for each line of the file. An example to
load the taxonomy data follows:

```java NCBITaxonomyLoader l = new SimpleNCBITaxonomyLoader();
BufferedReader nodes = new BufferedReader(new FileReader("nodes.dmp"));
BufferedReader names = new BufferedReader(new FileReader("names.dmp"));

NCBITaxon t; while ((t=l.readNode(nodes))!=null); // read all the nodes
first while ((t=l.readName(names))!=null); // then read all the names

// if your LRU cache is big enough, it'll now hold fully-populated
instances // of all the taxon objects. Not much use unless you're using
a database! ```

Note that this is most effective when using BioJavaX with Hibernate to
persist data to the database. You do not need to do anything apart from
wrap the above code in a transaction, and it will be persisted for you.

Note that you may have trouble with duplicate NCBITaxon objects or names
going missing if you have an LRU cache in RichObjectFactory that is too
small. This issue is avoided altogether when using the
BioSQLRichObjectFactory.

### When File Parsers Go Wrong

Sometimes you'll come across a file that is not strictly in the correct
format, or you may even uncover a bug in one of the parsers. We always
appreciate feedback in these cases, including the input file in question
and a full stack trace. However, sometimes you may want to find the
problem yourself, or even attempt to fix it! So we have produced the
DebuggingRichSeqIOListener for this purpose.

The DebuggingRichSeqIOListener is a class that acts both as a
BufferedInputStream, so it can be passed to a RichSequenceFormat for
reading data, and as a RichSeqIOListener, so that it can be passed to
the same RichSequenceFormat to listen to the sequence generation events.
It dumps all input out to STDOUT as it reads it, and notifies every
sequence generation event to STDOUT as it is received. This way you can
see exactly at which points in the file the events are being generated,
the data the format was working on at the time the event was generated,
and if an exception happens, it will appear immediately after the
section of the file that was in error.

The idea is that you do something like this (the example debugs the
parsing of a FASTA file):

```java Namespace ns = RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace();
InputStream is = new FileInputStream("myFastaFile.fasta"); FastaFormat
format = new FastaFormat();

DebuggingRichSeqIOListener debug = new DebuggingRichSeqIOListener(is);
BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(debug));

SymbolTokenization symParser = format.guessSymbolTokenization(debug);

format.readRichSequence(br, symParser, debug, ns); ```

Note that you will often get bits of file repeated in the output, as the
format runs backwards and forwards through the file between markers it
has set. This is perfectly normal although it may look a little strange.

When reporting problems with file parsing, it would be very useful if
you could run the above code on your chosen input file and chosen
RichSequenceFormat, and send us a copy of the output along with the
stacktrace and input file.

Creative file parsing with RichSeqIOListener.
---------------------------------------------

### Using RichSeqIOListeners directly

In order to do creative file parsing, you need to start using very low
level BioJava APIs. This involves setting up a RichSeqIOListener and
allowing it to communicate directly with the RichSequenceFormat
instances that parse files. You have to choose whether you want just to
listen to data as it is read from the file, or whether you want to use
these events to construct a RichSequence object.

#### Listening to events only

You need to write a class which implements RichSeqIOListener. The
easiest way to do this is to extend RichSeqIOAdapter, which is a very
simple implementation which ignores everything and returns dummy empty
features whenever getCurrentFeature() is called.

You can then use your class like this (see the earlier section on
RichStreamReader for how to construct the various other objects
required):

```java BufferedReader input = ...; // your input file Namespace ns =
...; // the namespace to read sequences into SymbolTokenization st =
...; // the tokenization used to parse sequence data

RichSeqIOListener listener = ...; // your custom listener object

boolean moreSeqsAvailable = true; // assume there is at least one
sequence in the file while (moreSeqsAvailable) {

`    moreSeqsAvailable = format.readRichSequence(input, st, listener, ns);`  
`    // your listener will have received all the information for the current sequence by this stage`

} ```

#### Constructing sequences from events

You need to write a class which implements both RichSeqIOListener and
RichSequenceBuilder. Again you could just extend RichSeqIOAdapter, and
implement the extra methods required by RichSequenceBuilder to make it
fully functional. You will obviously need to store information passed to
your instance as parsing goes along, in order to be able to construct
the sequence objects when makeRichSequence() is called at the end.

Your RichSequenceBuilder is now fully compatible with the
RichStreamReader framework outlined earlier in this document, but you
will also need to create a RichSequenceBuilderFactory implementation to
work with it. The simplest form of such a factory (assuming a custom
builder named CustomRichSequenceBuilder) looks like this:

```java public class CustomRichSequenceBuilderFactory implements
RichSequenceBuilderFactory {

`   public CustomRichSequenceBuilderFactory() {}`  
`   public SequenceBuilder makeSequenceBuilder() {`  
`       return new CustomRichSequenceBuilder();`  
`   }`

} ```

### Parsing only specific fields

The basic RichSeqIOAdapter class ignores all data passed to it. This is
the simplest form of a RichSeqIOListener. Building from this base, you
can construct specialist RichSeqIOListener implementations that perform
very specific tasks very efficiently. For instance, a listener that
counts all the sequences in a file would look like this:

```java public class MyListener extends RichSeqIOAdapter {

`   private int seqCount;`  
`   public MyListener() { `  
`       super();`  
`       this.seqCount = 0;`  
`   }`  
`   public void startSequence() { this.seqCount++; }`  
`   public void getSeqCount() { return this.seqCount; }`

} ```

You could then call getSeqCount() on this class after parsing a file to
find out exactly how many sequences it contained.

Publication cross-references.
-----------------------------

### Everything is a 'journal article'

Owing to the way in which BioSQL stores publication cross-references,
there is no way to distinguish between different types of publication.
This is mirrored in the BioJavaX object model in the DocRef interface.

As journal articles are the most common type of publication
cross-reference, everything is assumed by BioJavaX to be a journal
article.

BioJavaX makes no attempt to parse information out from textual
publication location descriptions (eg. the LOCATION line in GenBank
files). Likewise, when it encounters XML publication location
descriptions (such as those found in UniProtXML) it merely concatenates
all the data together into a single string. When writing out in XML
format it always uses the plain-text option wherever possible unless
forced to use the journal-article specific option by an XML DTD. These
descriptions are stored using setLocation() on the DocRef object.

The only piece of information which it attempts to parse (other than the
title) is the author data. It parses each author into a DocRefAuthor,
and stores a set of these with each DocRef object. Tools are provided in
DocRefAuthor.Tools for converting these sets to/from a single string for
use in situations such as the AUTHOR tag in GenBank files, or when
persisting to a BioSQL database.

DocRef instances must be wrapped in a RankedDocRef before they can be
associated with a sequence via addRankedDocRef(). The usual default rank
is 0.

### Editors and consortiums as authors

When dealing in plain text, authors who are editors are suffixed with "
(ed.)". Authors who are consortiums are suffixed with " (consortium)".
The DocRefAuthor.Tools parses these suffixes (in any order) and uses
setEditor() and setConsortium() on the DocRefAuthor object to indicate
what it found. When converting DocRefAuthor objects to plain text it
will also append these suffixes as necessary.

Database cross-references.
--------------------------

### Database names

Cross-references to other databases are defined as CrossRef objects. To
associate a cross-reference with a particular sequence, you need to
assign it a rank before adding it to the sequence using
addRankedCrossRef(). To do this, wrap it in a RankedCrossRef object.

Database names are case-sensitive. When using cross-references, be very
aware of this. The various file parsers do not make much effort to
convert the database names they find to a single case policy, as several
of the formats insist on different ones.

If you will be persisting lots of new data regularly to your datbase,
keep an eye on this. Some kind of SQL script to do a periodic tidy-up
might be handy. If you come up with one and feel it would be useful for
others too, please feel free to send it in and we'll add it below.

Common database names can be found as constants (eg. PUBMED\_KEY) in
RichSequence.Terms.

### Accessions and versions

All database cross-references have at least one accession, which is the
primary accession for that reference. The version is also compulsory,
although often it is just left as zero. Only primary accessions have
explicitly separate versions - secondary or tertiary accessions, if they
have versions at all, will have the versions included in the accession
itself.

Secondary, ternary, quaternary etc. accessions are stored as annotations
on the cross-reference. These secondary accession annotations must all
have the key RichSequence.Terms.getAdditionalAccessionTerm() if they are
to be understood across all parts of BioJavaX.

Working with RichLocation objects.
----------------------------------

### Working with locations

In BioJavaX, all locations are instances of classes which implement the
RichLocation interface. These are very complex objects, so need to be
used with care.

All locations use Position objects to define their end points. Position
objects have a start coordinate, and for fuzzy ones an end coordinate
too along with a symbol indicating what kind of range the two points
encompass (eg. the "." or "^" symbols from GenBank-style locations). If
the start or end coordinate of a fuzzy position is fuzzy in itself (eg.
"\<" or "\>" from GenBank-style locations), then flags can be set on the
object to indicate this.

Locations have ranks which are used to sort them. If persisted to a
database, the location will be flattened out into a set of simple
locations, ordered by their rank in ascending order. The complex
location constructed from these when retrieving them from the database
will have its members in the same order. It is important then to monitor
the ranks in your locations and make sure they are in the correct order
before persisting them. Note that the locations produced by the
UniProtLocationParser and GenbankLocationParser will always be correctly
ranked ready for persisting to a database.

The simplest kind of location describes a single point or range between
two points on a sequence, with optional fuzziness at either end. This is
implemented by the SimpleRichLocation class.

This example describes the GenBank-style location string "56":

```java Position pos = new SimplePosition(56); // the 0 is an arbitrary
value for the rank of this location RichLocation loc = new
SimpleRichLocation(pos,0); ```

This example describes the GenBank-style location string
"(23^34)..57\>":

```java // two falses = not fuzzy at all Position min = new
SimplePosition(false,false,23,34,"^"); // false = non-fuzzy start, true
= fuzzy end Position max = new SimplePosition(false,true,57); // the 0
is an arbitrary value for the rank of this location RichLocation loc =
new SimpleRichLocation(min,max,0); ```

This example describes the GenBank-style location string
"complement((23^34)..57\>)":

```java // two falses = not fuzzy at all Position min = new
SimplePosition(false,false,23,34,"^"); // false = non-fuzzy start, true
= fuzzy end Position max = new SimplePosition(false,true,57);
RichLocation loc = new
SimpleRichLocation(min,max,0,Strand.NEGATIVE\_STRAND); ```

This example describes the GenBank-style location string
"A12345.3:complement((23^34)..57\>)":

```java // version 3 of accession A12345 in the GenBank database CrossRef
cr = new SimpleCrossRef("GenBank","A12345",3); // two falses = not fuzzy
at all Position min = new SimplePosition(false,false,23,34,"^"); //
false = non-fuzzy start, true = fuzzy end Position max = new
SimplePosition(false,true,57); RichLocation loc = new
SimpleRichLocation(min,max,Strand.NEGATIVE\_STRAND,cr); ```

If you require locations that cover more than one range, you must use
the RichLocation.Tools methods to help you. If you don't, you run a
serious risk of making nonsense locations that will give unpredictable
results.

A complex location is constructed from a collection of RichLocation
instances. Any member of the collection which is already a complex
location is flattened out into its member SimpleRichLocation objects
first (see later section on flattening locations) before the new
location is constructed. The construction process attempts to minimise
the number of these simple locations by merging the ones that overlap.
Therefore the total number of member locations (blocks) in the resulting
complex location may be less than the number of locations you originally
passed in as input.

To construct a complex location from a set of existing RichLocation
instances, follow this example:

```java RichLocation first = ...; // some arbitrary location RichLocation
second = ...; // some other location Collection members =
Arrays.asList(new RichLocation[]{first,second}); RichLocation combined =
RichLocation.Tools.construct(members); ```

The construct() method will return one of four different types of
RichLocation objects, depending on the members passed in:

Table 12.1. RichLocation.Tools.construct() result types.

| Type of Location objects        | Use                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     |
|---------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| EmptyRichLocation               | If the input collection was empty, or only contained a single entry which was an instance of EmptyRichLocation itself.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  |
| SimpleRichLocation              | If all the members in the input collection overlap and are on the same strand of the same sequence, the result will be a single location covering the entire overlapping range.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
| CompoundRichLocation            | If all the members in the input collection are on the same strand of the same sequence, but after merging overlapping locations there are still gaps, then a CompoundRichLocation is returned containing one SimpleRichLocation per merged region. All the members are guaranteed to be on the same strand of the same sequence. The strand and cross-ref of the location returned will be consistent with its members. The min and max of the location will correspond to the min and max of all the members combined. |
| MultiSourceCompoundRichLocation | As per CompoundRichLocation, but members may appear on different strands or even different (remote) sequences. The min, max, strand and cross-ref of the location returned are meaningless, and should not be used. You should instead interrogate each member location (block) for this information as required.                                                                                                                                                                                                       |

### Strandedness.

All SimpleRichLocation and CompoundRichLocation objects have a strand
assigned to them. The various strands available are defined as constants
in RichLocation.Strand. If two locations have different strands, then
they will never be found together in the same CompoundRichLocation, but
they may occur together in a MultiSourceCompoundRichLocation.

In all cases, location coordinates are given w.r.t. the 5' end of the
positive strand, with the first base numbered as 1. This is to make
overlap, union, and intersection calculations easier.

### Remote locations.

Locations are generally sequence-agnostic until they are applied to a
specific sequence, usually through a feature. However, some locations
specifically refer to an individual sequence, and are assigned a
CrossRef instance to indicate this. These are remote locations. A null
value indicates that the location is not remote.

The sequences backing remote locations are retrieved using a
CrossReferenceResolver, the default one being supplied by
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultCrossReferenceResolver(). You can override
the use of this default either by changing the default in the
RichObjectFactory, or calling setCrossReferenceResolver() directly on
the location object. The default one does not look up remote sequences
at all, and always returns null for sequence objects, and
InfinitelyAmbiguousSymbolList instances for symbol list requests. The
one supplied for use with Hibernate does attempt to look sequences up in
the underlying database, but if it cannot find them it will exhibit
similar behaviour.

The job of this resolver is to obtain sequence data for the remote
sequence. If the resolver cannot locate the sequence, the location may
throw an exception when any operation requiring the services of the
resolver is attempted.

If you are using a database with BioJavaX and that sequence is to be
found in the same database, then make sure that the database name given
to the CrossRef instance is the same as the namespace of the sequence in
your database, and that the accessions and versions are the same.

### Resolving fuzziness.

Fuzziness is all well and good until you try and work out whether one
sequence overlaps another, or try and store the location in a database
like BioSQL that has no concept of fuzziness. In these kinds of
situation, you have to resolve the fuzziness to a specific coordinate
before you can use it.

Locations will resolve positions as necessary using the position
resolver supplied by RichObjectFactory.getDefaultPositionResolver(). You
can replace this default resolver for all locations by using the
appropriate methods in RichObjectFactory, or you can change it for this
location only by calling setPositionResolver() on the location object. A
number of useful ones are provided as sub-classes of the
PositionResolver interface.

### Translation.

Locations can be moved left or right by a fixed number of bases by using
the translate() method. This method returns a new location with all
members offset by the value specified. A negative offset will move
locations towards the 5' end of the positive strand, whilst a positive
offset will move them towards the 3' end.

### Empty locations.

The empty location is represented by a singleton instance of
EmptyRichLocation, available as a constant as
RichLocation.EMPTY\_LOCATION.

### Circular locations

Locations are circular if a call is made to setCircularLength() with a
value greater than zero. The value indicates the length of the circular
sequence that this location overlays. This is important when it comes to
calculating overlaps, unions and other operations where the wrap-around
point for the coordinates must be known.

A circular location cannot be applied to a non-circular sequence.
Neither can it be applied to a circular sequence with a length that is
not the same as the one returned by the getCircularLength() method of
the location.

The concept of circularity is not understood by BioSQL, so this
information will be lost if you persist it to a database.

### Union

The union of any two locations X and Y that do not overlap (see section
on overlapping locations), or that overlap but on different strands, is
simply a complex location with X and Y as members.

The union of two linear locations X and Y that overlap on the same
strand is a single simple location that covers the entire area from
X.min to Y.max.

The union of circular location X with any other location Y that overlaps
on the same strand is a single simple location that covers the region
from the 5' most of X.min and Y.min to the 3' most of X.max and Y.max
w.r.t. the positive strand.

Complex locations will perform the above steps on each pair of member
locations in turn, and the union will be the combination set of all
unique locations that these pair-wise intersections produce. Any
overlapping locations on the same strand within this set will be merged
into single, larger locations.

### Intersection

Locations never intersect if they do not overlap (see section on
overlapping locations). The intersection operation will return the empty
location.

If two linear locations X and Y overlap each other on the same strand,
then the intersection is a single simple location covering the
overlapping region.

If any two locations X and Y overlap each other on different strands,
then the intersection is a complex location containing only the portions
of X and Y that overlap each other.

If a circular location X overlaps any other location Y on the same
strand, then the resulting single simple circular location will cover
the region from the 3' most of X.min and Y.min to the 5' most of X.max
and Y.max w.r.t. the positive strand.

Complex locations will perform the above steps on each pair of member
locations in turn, and the intersection will be the set of all unique
locations that these pair-wise intersections produce. Any overlapping
locations on the same strand within this set will be merged into single,
larger locations.

### Overlaps.

Locations never overlap locations which are on a different remote
sequence. However, locations on opposite strands may overlap each other.

Circular locations of different circular lengths never overlap each
other. Circular locations never overlap linear locations.

Complex locations test each individual member in turn for overlap. The
empty location never overlaps anything.

Linear locations X and Y overlap iff X.min \<= Y.max and X.max \>=
Y.min.

Circular locations (of the same circular length) X and Y overlap iff
X.min \<= Y.max-N and X.max \>= Y.min-N where N is some multiple of the
circular length of either location.

### Contains

There are two types of contains operation - one tests the presence of a
particular point coordinate, the other tests whether this location
entirely encompasses another location.

Complex locations make the test against each member in turn. The empty
location never will never contain anything.

#### Point coordinates.

For linear locations, a location contains a point if that point falls on
or between the min and max of this location. If the min or max of this
location is fuzzy, it is resolved into a single point first before the
test is made.

For circular locations, the point is defined to be contained by a
location if the point +/- some multiple of the circular length of the
location lies between the min and max of the location.

#### Other locations.

Locations never contain locations which are on a different strand or
remote sequence.

A linear location X contains another linear location Y iff X.min \<=
Y.min and X.max \>= Y.max.

A circular location X contains any other location Y iff X.min \<=
Y.min-N and X.max \>= Y.max-N where N is some multiple of the circular
length of the location X.

### Obtaining the symbols for a location.

The symbols for a location are obtained by calling symbols() on the
location object and passing in the reference sequence which the location
must be applied to. If the location contains coordinates that are
outside the range of the reference sequence, an exception will be
thrown.

The location will iterate through each of its members (or just itself if
it is a SimpleRichLocation) and concatenate the results of calling
symbols() on each of them in turn. The concatenated sequence is then
returned. This means that the order of the members is important. It will
always be the same as the order in which the members were specified to
RichLocation.Tools.construct(), if that was the way you put this
location together.

Where it comes across a remote location that refers to a sequence other
than the one passed in for reference, the CrossReferenceResolver of that
location is used to obtain the remote sequence. The default
CrossReferenceResolver, DummyCrossReferenceResolver, will return a
number of ambiguity symbols equivalent to the length of the remote
location. The Hibernate version, BioSQLCrossReferenceResolver, will
return the actual sequence from the database, but otherwise will behave
the same way if the remote sequence cannot be found.

The sequences of locations on the negative strand will be reverse
complemented before concatenation to the results. Hence it is important
that you construct complex locations on the negative strand with the
member locations appearing in order from 3' to 5' end of the positive
strand if you want the symbols() call to return sensible results.

Features
--------

### Adding features to a RichSequence.

The best way to create a new feature is like this:

```java // create a feature template Feature.Template templ = new
RichFeature.Template(); // assign the feature template a location, type,
and source templ.location = ...; templ.typeTerm = ...; templ.sourceTerm
= ...; // assign the rest of the necessary stuff templ.annotation = new
SimpleRichAnnotation(); templ.featureRelationshipSet = new TreeSet();
templ.rankedCrossRefs = new TreeSet(); // get a sequence from somewhere
RichSequence rs = ...; // make a new feature on that sequence
RichFeature feat = rs.createFeature(RichFeature.Template()); ```

Alternatively, you can start with a completely empty dummy feature and
just customise the bits you need:

```java // get a sequence RichSequence rs = ...; // make an empty feature
RichFeature feat = RichFeature.Tools.makeEmptyFeature(); // associate
sequence with feature feat.setParent(rs): // associate feature with
sequence rs.getFeatureSet().add(feat);

// customise the feature here, eg. location, type, source etc. ```

### Qualifiers as annotations.

All feature qualifiers are stored as annotations. Qualifier annotations
have a ComparableTerm as key, and a String as the value. Multiple
qualifiers with the same term are allowed but only if the values are
distinct. Use the rank of the annotation to preserve order.

To go through all the qualifiers on a particular feature is quite
straightforward:

```java RichFeature feat = ...; // get the feature from somewhere for
(Iterator i = feat.getNoteSet().iterator(); i.hasNext; ) {

`   // get the next note`  
`   Note n = (Note)i.next();`  
`   // read it`  
`   String key = n.getTerm().getName();`  
`   String value = n.getValue();`  
`   int rank = n.getRank();`  
`   // print the qualifier out in key=value (rank) format`  
`   System.out.println(key+"="+value+" ("+rank+")"); `

} ```

### Obtaining the symbols for a feature.

The symbols for a feature are simply the result of a delegated call to
the symbols() method of the feature's Location object, using the
feature's parent object as the reference sequence for the location. See
the section on locations in this document for details on how the symbols
are obtained.

Relationships between features.
-------------------------------

### Relating two features.

Two features can be related to each other by using a
RichFeatureRelationship object to construct the link.

Relationships have compulsory ranks. Use 0 if you don't want to bother
with this.

The following code snippet defines a new term "contains" in the default
ontology, then creates a relationship that states that feature A (the
parent) contains feature B (the child):

```java ComparableTerm contains =
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology().getOrCreateTerm("contains"); ...
RichFeature parent = ...; // get feature A from somewhere RichFeature
child = ...; // get feature B from somewhere RichFeatureRelationship
relationship = new RichFeatureRelationship(parent,child,contains,0);
parent.addFeatureRelationship(relationship); // add the relationship to
the parent ... parent.removeFeatureRelationship(relationship); // you
can always take it away again later ```

### Querying the relationship.

Features are aware of all relationships in which they are the parent
feature.

The following code snippet prints out all the relationships to child
features within a parent feature:

```java RichFeature feature = ...; // get a feature from somewhere for
(Iterator i = feature.getFeatureRelationshipSet().iterator();
i.hasNext(); ) {

`    RichFeatureRelationship fr = (RichFeatureRelationship)i.next();`  
`    RichFeature parent = fr.getObject(); // parent == feature`  
`    RichFeature child = fr.getSubject(); `  
`    ComparableTerm relationship = fr.getTerm();`  
`    // print out the relationship (eg. "A contains B");`  
`    System.out.println(parent.getName()+" "+relationship.getName()+" "+child.getName());`

} ```

Annotations and Comments.
-------------------------

### Annotations.

The original BioJava allowed annotations to take the form of any object
as the key, with any other object as the value. BioJavaX restricts this
significantly in order to make life easier when dealing with databases.
The new requirement, for RichAnnotation objects, is that the keys are
all instances of ComparableTerm, and the values are all instances of
String.

Anything which is annotatable (eg. BioEntry, RichFeature, etc.) will
implement RichAnnotatable. You can then use getAnnotation() to obtain
the RichAnnotation object and start annotating with it.

To obtain the ComparableTerm objects to use as keys, the simplest method
is to call
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultOntology().getOrCreateTerm("myterm").

### Comments.

Sequences can have free-text comments (in the form of a String instance
wrapped in a Comment instance) associated with them. Each comment is
ranked. Duplicate comments with identical text and rank will be ignored.
The number of comments allowed is unlimited.

To add a comment, call addComment() on the sequence object.

### UniProt structured comments.

When parsing UniProt and UniProtXML files, comments take on a structured
form. This is represented in text form by special formatting, but in
order to parse this information out succesfully (particularly important
when writing UniProtXML) a separate parser is required to transform the
structured text into a usable object.

This parser is the UniProtCommentParser. It has two main methods,
parseComment() for converting structured text into an object, and
generate() for converting the object back into structured text. The
'object' is actually the parser itself, which has a number of methods
for accessing information from the parsed comment, or setting
information to be written out next time generate() is called.

Namespaces.
-----------

### Obtaining Namespace instances.

All sequences in BioJavaX must belong to a namespace, by being
associated with an instance of the Namespace interface. This is in line
with BioSQL.

A default namespace is provided by the RichObjectFactory:

```java // get the default namespace Namespace defaultNS =
RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace(); ... // make a custom namespace
Namespace customNS = (Namespace)RichObjectFactory.getObject(

`                                                 SimpleNamespace.class, new Object[]{"myNameSpace"}); `

... // load a namespace from BioSQL, or create it if it doesn't exist
yet Namespace biosqlNS = (Namespace)BioSQLRichObjectFactory.getObject(

`                                                       SimpleNamespace.class, new Object[]{"myBioSQLNameSpace"});`

... // change the default namespace to "bloggs"
RichObjectFactory.setDefaultNamespaceName("bloggs"); ```

NCBI Taxonomy.
--------------

### Traversing from child to parent.

```java NCBITaxon child = ...; // some taxon object you want the parent
of Integer parentNCBITaxID = new Integer(child.getParentNCBITaxID());
NCBITaxon parent =
(NCBITaxon)RichObjectFactory.getObject(SimpleNCBITaxon.class,new
Object[]{parentNCBITaxID}); ```

### Traversing from parent to child.

This cannot be done using the BioJavaX API.

But, you can do it using HQL if you are reading your taxonomy
information from a database. See the section on BioSQL and Hibernate for
details about setting BioJavaX for use with a database. The query you
are looking for is this:

```java NCBITaxon parent = ...; // some taxon object you want to get the
immediate children of Query q = session.createQuery("from Taxon where
parentNCBITaxID = :parentNCBITaxID");
q.setInteger("parentNCBITaxID",parent.getNCBITaxID()); List children =
q.list(); // children will now contain all the child taxon objects

Finding taxons by name.

This also cannot be done using the BioJavaX API.

Again, you can do it using HQL if you are reading your taxonomy information from a database. The query you are looking for is this:

```java Query q = session.createQuery(“from Taxon as taxon join taxon.nameSet as taxonName “+

                                "where taxonName.nameClass=:nameClass and taxonName.name=:name");

q.setString(“nameClass”,NCBITaxon.SCIENTIFIC); q.setString(“name”,”Homo sapiens”); List taxons = q.list(); // taxons will now contain all matching taxon objects ```

BioEntry and RichSequence Databases

BioJavaX allows both BioEntry and RichSequence objects to be collected together in a single group. BioEntry objects can be collected together inside implementations of BioEntryDB, whilst RichSequence objects can be collected inside implementations of RichSequenceDB (which extends BioEntryDB). These are both very similar to the existing SequenceDB interface in BioJava, and in fact RichSequenceDB extends SequenceDB and therefore can be used as a drop-in replacement.

An abstract implementation of each of these interfaces is provided, along with a simple hash-based implementation.

The idea of a collection such as this is to provide a wrapper to some kind of behind-the-scenes database. The hash-based implementations, HashBioEntryDB and HashRichSequenceDB, simply provide an in-memory database where sequences are stored in a HashMap, whereas the GenbankRichSequenceDB implementation is a read-only implementation which downloads and parses Genbank records on-demand from the NCBI website.

There is also a pair of convenience implementations called BioSQLBioEntryDB and BioSQLRichSequenceDB which wrap a Hibernate session connected to a BioSQL database and allow BioEntry and RichSequence objects to be read from, added to and deleted from BioSQL. See the relevant section in the chapter on BioSQL and Hibernate for details.

BioSQL and Hibernate.

Introduction to Hibernate.

BioJavaX uses Hibernate to manage persistence of BioJavaX objects to/from a database.

Hibernate works by parsing a set of mapping files that tell it how to translate between objects/fields and tables/columns. It tracks changes, writes and executes all the SQL required, and does its best to keep everything consistent and efficient so that your application never needs to talk directly to the database. It also enforces all primary/foreign-key relations between objects.

Hibernate revolves around the use of JavaBeans. A single JavaBean usually represents a single table. This is the case in BioJavaX. Each column of the table is represented by a field with a standard getter/setter pair of methods within the bean. Hibernate uses these get/set methods to load and save the values to and from the database. Foreign-keys are represented by defining the field as an instance of the bean representing the foreign table. One-to-many relationships are made by defining the field as an instance of a Collection, where each member of the collection is the bean representing the foreign table.

BioJavaX contains virtually no query code, and provides no API for querying the database. This is because the API is the object model. You do not need to have anything more than a Hibernate session to be able to read and write BioJavaX objects directly to the database.

Mapping files are provided only for BioSQL, as this is the database schema that BioJavaX was designed to imitate, but there is no reason why mapping files could not be created for other database schemas. Please feel free to contribute them if you do so.

The BioSQL mapping files use lazy-loading extensively. This means that data usually will not get loaded until you try to access it using the appropriate getter/setter method of the object. You can change this behaviour by editing the mapping files.

Queries are constructed not using SQL but using the Hibernate Query Language, or HQL. You can find out more about HQL and the Hibernate project at their website: http://www.hibernate.org/

Hibernate object-relational mappings.

The following table describes which object in BioJavaX ends up in which table in BioSQL. The first column is the name of the BioSQL table, the second is the mapping name to be used in HQL to query the table, and the third column is the class of object you will get when the query returns results:

Table 19.1. Hibernate object-relational mappings.

BioSQL Table Name HQL Name to use Type of returned object
biodatabase Namespace SimpleNamespace
taxon Taxon SimpleNCBITaxon
bioentry BioEntry SimpleBioEntry
taxon_name (use properties of NCBITaxon) SimpleNCBITaxonName
biosequence (including the sequence data) Sequence SimpleRichSequence
biosequence (excluding the sequence data) ThinSequence ThinRichSequence
bioentry_relationship BioEntryRelationship SimpleBioEntryRelationship
comment Comment SimpleComment
dbxref CrossRef SimpleCrossRef
bioentry_dbxref (use properties of BioEntry) SimpleRankedCrossRef
reference DocRef SimpleDocRef
bioentry_reference (use properties of BioEntry) SimpleRankedDocRef
dbxref_qualifer_value (use properties of CrossRef) SimpleNote
bioentry_qualifier_value (use properties of BioEntry) SimpleNote
ontology Ontology ComparableOntology
term Term ComparableTerm
term_relationship Triple ComparableTriple
term_synonym (use properties of Term) String
term_dbxref (use properties of Term) SimpleRankedCrossRef
seqfeature Feature SimpleRichFeature
seqfeature_qualifier_value (use properties of Feature) SimpleNote
seqfeature_dbxref (use properties of Feature) SimpleRankedCrossRef
seqfeature_relationship FeatureRelationship SimpleRichFeatureRelationship
location Location SimpleRichLocation, CompoundRichLocation, or EmptyRichLocation
location_qualifier_value (use properties of Location) SimpleNote
seqfeature_path nil nil
bioentry_path nil nil
term_path nil nil

Configuring your application to use Hibernate and BioSQL.

To use Hibernate with your application, you need to do five things:

  1. Install Hibernate.
  2. Copy and configure the Hibernate mapping files for your database.
  3. Create a Hibernate session and connect it to BioJavaX.
  4. Open a transaction.
  5. Read/write objects from the database.
  6. End the transaction.
  7. Close the Hibernate session.

Installing Hibernate.

Hibernate consists of a number of JAR files, downloadable from their website at http://www.hibernate.org/. You should add these JAR files to your classpath. You will also need to download the JAR file for your database’s JDBC driver, and add that to your classpath too.

Note for Oracle users: the mapping files supplied for Oracle BioSQL are designed to work only with Oracle 9i or better database and Oracle 9i or better JDBC drivers.

Copying and configuring the mapping files.

BioJavaX is supplied with four sets of mapping files, all of which define the mapping between BioJavaX objects and a BioSQL database. The four sets are for Oracle, PostGreSQL, MySQL, and HSQLDB.

You will find the mapping files in the source package org.biojavax.bio.seq.db.biosql.*. Choose the set you want and copy them to one of the following places:

  • The root of your .jar file if your application is compiled as a JAR.
  • The current working directory of your application.

To configure Hibernate, you must edit the copy you made of the hibernate.cfg.xml file. Near the top is a section that looks like this:

java:comp/env/jdbc/YOUR\_JNDI\_DATASOURCE\_GOES\_HERE

The exact details will vary according to which database you are using.

You will see that the default way of using Hibernate is through a JNDI datasource, usually supplied by a servlet container such as Tomcat. In this case, you should modify the connection.datasource parameter to reflect the name of your JNDI datasource.

If you are not using JNDI, then comment that line out and uncomment the section marked ‘testing only’. This section allows you to configure Hibernate to use a JDBC connection to talk to your database. Please read more about this at http://www.hibernate.org/ if you intend to use JDBC directly, as there are several caveats regarding connection pooling that must be taken into consideration. The configuration shown above is recommended only for development, and is not suitable either for production code or for performance testing.

Opening and closing sessions.

Hibernate deals in sessions, which must be opened before a database can be used, and closed again at the end in order to bring the database back into a consistent state. Hibernate will attempt to clean-up automatically if you forget to close the session, but it is better to be safe than sorry and close it explicitly.

BioJavaX must be told about the session in order to be able to use it to manage database singleton objects such as namespaces or taxon definitions. If you fail to connect the session to BioJavaX, you will almost certainly end up with ‘unique constraint violation’ exceptions being thrown left, right and centre. So be careful!

You must connect the session to BioJavaX before doing any operations with it at all. It should usually be the first or very nearly the first line in your code.

To open a Hibernate session and connect it to BioJavaX:

java // load Hibernate config SessionFactory sessionFactory = new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory(); // open the session Session session = sessionFactory.openSession(); // connect it to BioJavaX RichObjectFactory.connectToBioSQL(session);

To close the Hibernate session:

java session.close();

Note that the line that loads the Hibernate configuration only needs to be done once, regardless of how many sessions you open, as long as you keep a reference to your sessionFactory somewhere handy.

Transactions.

If you are going to be writing objects to the database, you must use transactions. If you are only reading from the database, then transactions are recommended but not compulsory. It’s probably safest to use them anyway then you needn’t worry about it.

A transaction defines a unit of work. BioJavaX never commits or rolls back anything, so this is left entirely up to the user to decide when to do so. Transactions are opened with a single line of code, and rolled back or committed with another single line of code. You’d usually use them in a construct such as this:

```java Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction(); // begin the transaction try {

   // do some stuff with BioJavaX objects here.
   ...
   tx.commit();          // commit the transaction if all went well

} catch (Exception e) {

   tx.rollback();        // roll back the transaction if something went wrong
   e.printStackTrace();  // tell the user what went wrong

} ```

Once a transaction object has been committed or rolled back you cannot use it any more and must open a new one.

Complete example.

This example iterates through every namespace it can find in the database, and prints the names out. It also prints out the names of all the sequences in each namespace, whether they be BioEntry or RichSequence instances. If it finds any sequences where the name is equal to ‘bloggs’, it changes their description to “XYZ”. It then commits any changes it has made and exits.

This example shows just how easy it is to read and write to the database. No SQL required!

```java SessionFactory sessionFactory = new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory(); Session session = sessionFactory.openSession(); RichObjectFactory.connectToBioSQL(session);

Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction(); try {

   // print out all the namespaces in the database

   Query q = session.createQuery("from Namespace");
   List namespaces = q.list();               // retrieve all the namespaces from the db
   for (Iterator i = namespaces.iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {
       Namespace ns = (Namespace)i.next();
       System.out.println(ns.getName());     // print out the name of the namespace

       // print out all the sequences in the namespace
       Query sq = session.createQuery("from BioEntry where namespace= :nsp");
       // set the named parameter "nsp" to ns
       sq.setParameter("nsp",ns);
       List sequences = sq.list();

       for (Iterator j = sequences.iterator(); j.hasNext(); ) {
           BioEntry be = (BioEntry)j.next();        // RichSequences are BioEntrys too
           System.out.println("   "+be.getName());  // print out the name of the sequence

           // if the sequence is called bloggs, change its description to XYZ

           if (be.getName().equals("bloggs")) {
               be.setDescription("XYZ");
           }
       }

   }

   // commit and tidy up
   tx.commit();         
   System.out.println("Changes committed.");

   // all sequences called bloggs now have a description "XYZ" in the database

} catch (Exception e) {

   tx.rollback();       
   System.out.println("Changes rolled back.");
   e.printStackTrace(); 

}

session.close(); ```

Flattened locations.

BioSQL does not have a concept of hierarchical locations. It allows multiple locations per feature, but it does not allow locations to have sub-locations or references to other locations. This means that the hierarchical location model allowed in BioJavaX must be flattened out into a one-level collection of simple locations before it can be persisted.

This flattening is done by RichLocation.Tools.flatten(). It only takes place at the point the user tries to save the location to the database, at which point not only does the database copy get flattened, but the in-memory one does too. The flattened location will logically represent the exact same area as the hierarchical original, but it will be constructed differently. The symbols returned by both the original and the flattened locations should be identical, as would the results of any union, intersection, contains, or overlaps operation.

The circularity of locations will be lost altogether when persisted to BioSQL.

Persisting objects.

Any object created by using methods from RichObjectFactory will automatically attach itself to the database and persist when the transaction is committed.

Any object you create directly yourself must be explicitly attached to the database using the appropriate Hibernate mapping name from the table earlier in this chapter. If the object you persist has properties that are other mappable objects, they will be persisted too in a cascading fashion.

For example, to persist a RichSequence object that you have just created, do this (inside a transaction):

java RichSequence rs = ...; // some sequence you've made session.saveOrUpdate("Sequence",rs); // persist the sequence

Nothing will actually get saved to the database until you commit the transaction. If you rollback the transaction or exit without committing first, all changes will be lost.

Loading objects.

Loading objects involves having to learn some HQL. The simplest cases are very easy, however it can get quite complex quite quickly. The thing you have to remember is that you are querying objects, not the database. As such, your results may include objects that have been persisted but not committed.

The simplest HQL query is the equivalent of a SQL select * from sometable. This is how you use it to select all namespaces from the database:

java Query q = session.createQuery("from Namespace"); List namespaces = q.list(); // namespaces now contains all the Namespace objects in the database

To set constraints your query should refer to object parameters, not table columns. The following query selects the namespace that is called ‘bloggs’:

java Query q = session.createQuery("from Namespace where name=:name"); q.setString("name","bloggs"); List namespaces = q.list(); // should only contain one Namespace object. Empty if none found. Namespace ns = (Namespace)q.uniqueResult(); // alternative notation for queries with single-row results

You don’t have to worry about foreign keys, and can just join objects directly without specifying which field to use. This query returns all RichSequence objects that have a comment that contains the word “rubbish” with a rank of 0:

```java Query q = session.createQuery(

         "select rs from Sequence as rs join Comment as c where c.comment like :comment and rank=:rank");

q.setString(“comment”,”%rubbish%”); // % symbol means match any string q.setInteger(“rank”,0); List sequences = q.list(); // a list of all matching RichSequence objects. ```

This query demonstrates the (unique) case of BioEntry and RichSequence being represented as a single Hibernate mapping, hence no join required to access fields from either table:

java Query q = session.createQuery("from Sequence where length\>:length and name=:name"); q.setInteger("length",200); q.setString("name","joe"); List sequences = q.list();

This query demonstrates how you can use other BioJavaX objects in the where clause without having to do any work at all. It returns all sequences that belong in a particular namespace:

java Namespace ns = ...; // get a namespace from somewhere, eg. RichObjectFactory.getDefaultNamespace() Query q = session.createQuery("from Sequence where namespace=:namespace"); q.setParameter("namespace",ns); // plug the namespace object right in! List sequences = q.list();

There’s no way this tutorial could ever hope to teach you all about HQL! The best thing to do is go to the Hibernate website and read up on it there: http://www.hibernate.org/.

Loading individual values from objects.

You might not always want to retrieve lists of objects from the database. This query retrieves the names of sequences:

java Query q = session.createQuery("select name from Sequence"); List names = q.list(); // list will contain String instances containing the names

This one returns all the lengths of sequences, which are integers. Note the use of sequenceLength, which is the object parameter, and not length which is the database table column name:

java Query q = session.createQuery("select sequenceLength from Sequence"); List lengths = q.list(); // list will contain Integer instances containing the lengths

Deleting objects.

Objects can be removed from the database by calling:

java session.delete(obj); // where obj is some persistent object

Only when the transaction is committed will they actually be deleted. If the transaction is rolled back, the objects will come back to life.

Auto-generating the BioSQL schema.

One nice side-effect of the Hibernate mappings is that they are able to completely regenerate the database schema required to support their functionality. Whilst this does not usually create a schema that is identical to the one you started with, it will function in the same way and produce the same results, and can be handy for development or testing purposes only.

It is not recommended that the generated scripts be used for production databases without some manual checking and fine-tuning, and it is most certainly not recommended to use the generated scripts in place of any ‘official’ schema generation scripts such as those that are provided by the BioSQL project.

Here is the code to generate the DDL from the Hibernate mappings. It will be printed to standard output (usually the screen):

java Configuration cfg = new Configuration().configure(); new SchemaExport(cfg).create(true, false);

Reading/writing objects as XML.

There is a bug in Hibernate which prevents this function from working 100% correctly (bug details here), however the code is supplied as an example for when the bug is fixed.

The snippet below will query the database for all DocRef objects, then output an XML representation of them to standard out:

```java Document doc = DocumentHelper.createDocument(); Element root = doc.addElement(“myRootNode”); // some arbitrary name for the XML root node

Session dom4jSession = session.getSession(EntityMode.DOM4J);

Query q = dom4jSession.createQuery(“from DocRef”); List results = q.list(); for (Iterator i = results.iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {

   Element rs = (Element)i.next();
   root.add(rs)

}

session.close();

// Pretty print the document to System.out OutputFormat format = OutputFormat.createPrettyPrint(); XMLWriter writer = new XMLWriter(System.out, format);// writer.write(doc); ```

Reading them back and saving them to the database is similar:

```java // open an XML document with some kind of org.dom4j.io.SAXReader Document doc = …; // use the node-name from the class tag of DocRef.hbm.xml mapping file List results = doc.selectNodes(“//docref”);

Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction(); Session dom4jSession = session.getSession(EntityMode.DOM4J);

for (Iterator i = results.iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {

   Object rs = (Object)i.next();
   dom4jSession.saveOrUpdate("DocRef",rs);

}

tx.commit(); session.close(); ```

BioEntryDB and RichSequenceDB convenience wrappers

BioJavaX supplies two convenience wrappers for the Hibernate+BioSQL combination which allow simple read/write access of BioEntry and RichSequence objects directly to/from a BioSQL database. They are designed for convenience not flexibility, so it is always best to use the full method outlined in the rest of this chapter, but if you are in a hurry then these should work just fine.

These two wrappers depend on your database having unique values in the name column of the BioEntry table. If this is not the case, then they will not work for you and you should use the full method instead.

If you use BioSQLBioEntryDB then the objects you get from the database are BioEntry objects and will not have the sequence data attached to them. This may increase performance if you are dealing with large sequences and do not need the sequence data. BioSQLRichSequenceDB loads RichSequence objects which means that sequence data comes along for the ride.

The wrappers allow sequences to be read from, added to and deleted from the database in a single command. The easiest way to demonstrate this is by a code example in which a sequence is read from the database, another sequence is added, and a third is deleted:

```java Session sess = …; // connect to BioSQL using Hibernate and establish a session RichObjectFactory.connectToBioSQL(sess); // bind BioJavaX to the Hibernate session

// create the RichSequenceDB wrapper around the Hibernate session RichSequenceDB db = new BioSQLRichSequenceDB(sess);

RichSequence seq1 = db.getRichSequence(“joe”); // load the sequence where name=’joe’

RichSequence seq2 = …; // create a sequence somehow db.addRichSequence(seq2); // add it to the database

db.removeRichSequence(“bloggs”); // delete the sequence where name=’bloggs’

sess.close(); // disconnect from the database ```

The code above is non-transactional, but it can be made to be transactional by doing something like this (based on the example in the JavaDocs for the Session object in Hibernate):

```java Session sess = …; // connect to BioSQL using Hibernate and establish a session RichObjectFactory.connectToBioSQL(sess); // bind BioJavaX to the Hibernate session

// create the RichSequenceDB wrapper around the Hibernate session RichSequenceDB db = new BioSQLRichSequenceDB(sess);

Transaction tx; try {

  tx = sess.beginTransaction();    // begin the transaction

  // do some work inside the transaction, eg. db.addRichSequence(seq)

  tx.commit();    // commit the transaction

} catch (Exception e) {

  if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();    // rollback in case of error
  throw e;

} finally {

  sess.close();    // disconnect from the database

} ```

BioSQLFeatureFilter

You can apply any FeatureFilter to a BioSQLRichSequenceDB instance using the filter() method, just like you could in the existing SequenceDB classes. However, BioSQLRichSequenceDB handles it slightly differently.

First, it attempts to convert every member of the FeatureFilter into an equivalent BioSQLFeatureFilter (if it isn’t already one), which knows how to apply that filter directly to the database. The BioSQLFeatureFilter interface provides two methods in order to allow this - one returns a Hibernate Criterion instance which represents the query required to select features of that kind, and the other returns a Map containing any table aliases the Criterion uses.

After having run a database query on any convertible FeatureFilters, it then passes all the results through the accept() method of the original FeatureFilter to see if those features should be returned as results. This is because not all FeatureFilters can be converted into BioSQLFeatureFilters, and so it cannot be guaranteed that the Criterion from the first step will have removed all ineligible candidates.

If you wish to write your own FeatureFilter implementations, you should use BioSQLFeatureFilter wherever possible in order to optimise the first (faster) step of this process and remove as much work as possible from the second (slower) step.

ThinSequences and Features

Usually when you access Feature objects, you aren’t interested in the entire sequence data for the sequence the feature belongs to. BioJavaX will therefore only load a ThinRichSequence to represent the Feature’s parent sequence if you load the Feature separately (eg. through the FeatureFilter mechanism). The ThinSequence loads sequence data direct from the database every time it is asked for it, and only loads the portion that was requested. Sequence data is not cached, so they are very memory-efficient if not a little slower to work with. If you wish to edit the parent sequence of a Feature, you must first directly load from the database yourself the true SimpleRichSequence object and edit that instead.

To load the full SimpleRichSequence version of a ThinRichSequence, the following simple call will work:

RichSequence simpleSeq = db.fullyLoadRichSequence(thinSeq); // where db is an instance of BioSQLRichSequenceDB

This two-level sequence loading is made possible by the RichSequenceHandler, which is used by RichSequence implementations to load sequence data on demand. The default implementation is the DummyRichSequenceHandler, which simply passes all calls on to the internal SymbolList inside each RichSequence object. By changing this to a BioSQLRichSequenceHandler, calls are converted into HQL statements and executed against the database instead.

Genetic Algorithms.

Overview

With the introduction of the org.biojavax.ga package it is now possible to generate Genetic Algorithms using BioJava.

Genetic Algorithms are a class of simulation, optimization or problem solving algorithms that attempt to evolve a solution to a problem. The solution being evolved is encoded as a ‘chromosome’ which is typically a binary string although other encodings are possible. At each generation (iteration) a population of chromosomes is available. Like real chromsomes they mutate and recombine with some frequency at each generation. Critically, after each round of potential mutation and recombination the chromosomes that encode the best solution are favoured for replication. Thus, there is a trend towards increasingly good solutions in the population.

The functions and stopping criteria are all Java interfaces so custom implementations are possible. The only requirement for the GeneticAlgorithm is that is has a Population, a MutationFunction, a CrossOverFunction, a FitnessFunction, a SelectionFunction and a GAStoppingCriteria. The actual implementations used are interchangeable. Further, the ‘chromosome(s)’ of the Organisms in a Population are just BioJava SymbolLists and any Alphabet could be used to encode a solution.

Example listing.

The example below demonstrates a very simple genetic algorithm constructed using the GA framework. The framework is designed to be very flexible and uses an interchangeable parts philosophy.

The core interface is the GeneticAlgorithm with its default implementation, SimpleGeneticAlgorithm. The GeneticAlgorithm takes any Population of Organisms and iterates through the generations. At each step a MutationFunction and a CrossOverFunction are responsible for introducing variation.

A FitnessFunction is responsible for determining the fitness of each Organism in the context of it’s parent Population. Because fitness can be calculated in the context of a Population it is possible to model competition within a Population. The Organisms to be selected for replication are nominated by the SelectionFunction usually on the basis of their fitness.

The GeneticAlgorithm will stop iterating when the GAStoppingCriteria tells it to. This may be when a suitable solution has been reached or after a finite number of generations.

```java public class GADemo {

   public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
       // print the header
       System.out.println("gen,average_fitness,best_fitness");

       // a uniform Distribution over the binary Alphabet
       Distribution bin_dist = new UniformDistribution(GATools.getBinaryAlphabet());

       // initialize the population
       Population pop = new SimplePopulation("demo population");

       // add 100 organisms
       for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
           Organism o = new SimpleOrganism("organism" + i);

           // make 1 random chromosome for each organism
           SymbolList[] ch = new SymbolList[1];
           // the symbols are randomly sampled from bin_dist
           ch[0] = new SimpleSymbolList(DistributionTools.generateSequence("",
               bin_dist, 100));

           // set the organisms chromosome to be ch
           o.setChromosomes(ch);

           // add to organism to the population pop
           pop.addOrganism(o);
       }

       // created a SelectionFunction
       SelectionFunction sf = new ProportionalSelection();

       // create a new CrossOverFunction
       CrossOverFunction cf = new SimpleCrossOverFunction();
       // set the max number of cross overs per chromosome
       cf.setMaxCrossOvers(1);
       // set a uniform cross over probability of 0.01
       cf.setCrossOverProbs(new double[] {0.01});

       // create a new MutationFunction
       MutationFunction mf = new SimpleMutationFunction();
       // set a uniform MutationProbability of 0.0001
       mf.setMutationProbs(new double[] {0.0001});
       // set the mutation spectrum of the function to be a standard
       // mutation distribution over the binary Alphabet
       mf.setMutationSpectrum(GATools.standardMutationDistribution(GATools
           .getBinaryAlphabet()));

       // make a GeneticAlgorithm with the above functions
       GeneticAlgorithm genAlg = new SimpleGeneticAlgorithm(pop, mf, cf, sf);
       // set its FitnessFunction
       genAlg.setFitnessFunction(new DemoFitness());
       // run the Algorithm until the criteria of DemoStopping are met
       genAlg.run(new DemoStopping());
   }

   /**
    * Basic implementation of GAStopping Criteria
    */
   static class DemoStopping implements GAStoppingCriteria {

       /**
        * Determines when to stop the Algorithm
        */
       public boolean stop(GeneticAlgorithm genAlg) {
           System.out.print(genAlg.getGeneration() + ",");
           Population pop = genAlg.getPopulation();
           int i;
           double totalFit = 0.0;

           FitnessFunction ff = genAlg.getFitnessFunction();

           double fit[] = {0.0};
           double bestFitness[] = {0.0};

           for (Iterator it = pop.organisms(); it.hasNext();) {
               Organism o = (Organism) it.next();
               fit = ff.fitness(o, pop, genAlg);
               for (i = 0; i < fit.length; i++) {
                   bestFitness[i] = Math.max(fit[i], bestFitness[i]);
                   totalFit += fit[i];
               }
           }

           // print the average fitness
           System.out.print((totalFit / (double) pop.size()) + ",");
           // print the best fitness
           System.out.println(bestFitness[0]);

           // fitness is 75.0 so stop the algorithm
           boolean good = false;
           for (i = 0; (i < bestFitness.length) && !good; i++) {
               if (bestFitness[i] >= 75.0) {
                   good = true;
                   System.out.println("Organism found with Fitness of 75%");
               }
           }
           // organism is fit enough, continue the algorithm
           return good;
       }
   }

   /**
    * A fitness function bases on the most "one" rich chromosome in the organism.
    */
   static class DemoFitness implements FitnessFunction {
       public double[] fitness(Organism o, Population p, GeneticAlgorithm genAlg) {
           double bestfit[] = {0.0};

           for (int i = 0; i < o.getChromosomes().length; i++) {
               SymbolList csome = o.getChromosomes()[i];
               double fit = 0.0;
               for (int j = 1; j <= csome.length(); j++) {
                   if (csome.symbolAt(j) == GATools.one()) fit++;
               }
               bestfit[0] = Math.max(fit, bestfit[0]);
           }

           return bestfit;
       }
   }

} ```